Chapter 0 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 0 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Prologue:...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Answers for Prologue: The Story of Psychology Psychology’s Roots Section Preview 1. Psychology’s ancestors date back to the world’s first scholars, including Buddha and Confucius, who considered the origin of ideas; the ancient Hebrews, who linked mind and emotion to the body; and Socrates and Plato, who viewed knowledge as inborn. The Greek naturalist and philosopher Aristotle emphasized the power of careful observation and saw knowledge as coming from the experiences stored in our memories. During the fourth century, the scholar Augustine wrote about mind - body interactions. In the 1600s, Francis Bacon, John Locke, and René Descartes revived the controversy, with Bacon and Locke arguing that knowledge depends on experience and Descartes maintaining that some knowledge is inborn. Bacon and Locke’s legacy helped shape modern science and its emphasis on empiricism. 2. Wilhelm Wundt founded the first psychology laboratory in 1879. Wundt’s student, Edward Titchener, introduced structuralism and its use of introspection to pinpoint the elemental structure of the mind. Under the influence of Charles Darwin, who introduced the idea of evolutionary psychology, William James introduced function - alism, with its emphasis on how behavior and mental processes enable organisms to adapt and survive. Two early women pioneers were Mary Calkins, who became the first female president of APA, and Margaret Washburn, who was the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology. 3. The young science of psychology evolved from philosophy and biology. Ivan Pavlov, who pio - neered the study of learning, was a Russian physiologist. Jean Piaget, the most influential observer of children, was a Swiss biologist, and Sigmund Freud was an Austrian physician. Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. It began as the science of mental life, with Wilhelm Wundt’s focus on inner sensations, feelings, and images. From the 1920s into the 1960s, psychology in the United States was most influenced by John Watson and others who redefined it as the “science of observable behavior.” In the 1960s, psychology began to recapture its interest in mental processes so that today psychology encompasses the scientific study of both overt behavior and covert thoughts and feelings. Stepping Through the Section 1. Buddha; Confucius 2. Socrates; Plato; separable; inherited; Aristotle 3. Augustine 4. Descartes; Francis Bacon; John Locke; empiricism 5. Wundt; Edward Titchener; structuralism; introspection; unreliable; William James; functionalism; pragmatism 6. Mary Calkins; Margaret Washburn 7. biology; philosophy 8. increased; increasing 9. learning; Sigmund Freud; children; William James 10. mental; observable; behavior; mental 11. observe; record; subjective experiences; infer 12. asking and answering questions Contemporary Psychology Section Preview 1. The first issue, “stability versus change,” has to do with whether the individual’s traits persist or change throughout life. The second issue,
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This document was uploaded on 09/08/2011.

Page1 / 4

Chapter 0 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Prologue:...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online