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Chapter 1 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 1 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 1...

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Answers for Chapter 1: Experiments The Need for Psychological Science Section Preview 1. Two reliable phenomena hindsight bias and overconfidence make intuition and common sense untrustworthy. Hindsight bias is the tendency to perceive an outcome that has already occurred as being obvious and predictable. Overconfidence is the tendency to think we know more about an issue than we actually do and to overestimate the accuracy of that knowledge. 2. As scientists, psychologists attempt to study thoughts and actions with an attitude of curiosity and skepticism. Scientists must also possess an attitude of humility because they may have to reject their ideas in the light of new evidence. Whether applied to reading news reports or listening to a lecture, critical thinking examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. 3. Scientists rely on theories to explain, organize, and predict the behaviors or events under study. Good theories give direction to research by generating testable predictions, called hypotheses. Operational definitions specify the procedures used to define and measure research variables. Such definitions prevent ambiguity by providing an exactness of meaning that allows other scientists to replicate ( repeat ) the study. Stepping Through the Section 1. hindsight bias 2. overconfidence 3. curiosity; skepticism; humility 4. critical thinking 5. theory; hypotheses 6. operational definitions; replicate 7. descriptive; correlational; experimental Description Section Preview 1. The simplest research strategy is description; examples include case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation. In the case study, one or more individuals is studied in great depth in the hope of revealing general principles underlying the behavior of all people. Surveys measure the self - reported attitudes or behaviors of a randomly selected representative sample of an entire group, or population. Naturalistic observation seeks to observe and record the behavior of organisms ( including humans ) in their natural environments. 2. Although descriptive research can suggest hypotheses for further study, it is limited to describing behavior and cannot reveal predictive, or cause - effect, relationships. One possible pitfall of case studies is that any given individual may be atypical, making the case misleading. Survey results may be misleading because even subtle changes in the order or wording of questions can influence responses. And the samples on which surveys are based may not be representative of the populations from which they are drawn. Stepping Through the Section 1. case study; atypical 2. survey 3. wording 4. false consensus effect 5. random; population; does 6. are 7. vivid 8. naturalistic observation 9. describe 10. varies; social; solitary Correlation Section Preview 1. A correlation is a statistical measure of relationship, revealing how accurately one event predicts another. Correlations are often graphically represented as scatterplots. A positive correlation indicates a direct
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