Chapter 2 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 2 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 2:...

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Answers for Chapter 2: Neuroscience Introduction Introduction Preview 1. Biological processes underlie every aspect of our behavior and mental processes. By studying the links between biology and psychology, biological psychologists achieve a greater understanding of such behaviors as sleep, hunger, sex, stress and disease, depression, and other human conditions. Stepping Through the Introduction 1. biological 2. phrenology 3. biological psychologists Neural Communication Section Preview 1. Body organs such as the stomach, heart, and brain, which are composed of smaller systems ( cells ) , form larger systems for digestion, circulation, and information processing, which are part of an even larger system the individual as a person, who in turn forms a part of a family, a community, and a culture. We are bio - psychosocial systems. 2. Each neuron consists of a cell body, branching fibers called dendrites that receive information from other neurons, and an extension fiber called an axon through which the neuron passes information to other neurons or to muscles or glands. Some axons are insulated with a myelin sheath, which helps speed neural impulses. A neural impulse, or action potential, occurs if the excitatory signals minus the inhibitory signals received by the neuron on its dendrites or cell body exceeds the neuron’s threshold. Then, the gates in the axon open, allowing positively charged atoms to rush inside. This depolarizes that part of the axon, which causes the axon’s next channel to open and leads to the electrical chain reaction by which electrically charged atoms ( ions ) travel down the axon into junctions with other neurons and with the muscles and glands of the body. 3. When an action potential reaches the end of the axon, chemical messengers called neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic gap between the sending and receiving neuron. This junction is called a synapse. Neurotransmitter molecules bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron and have either an excitatory or inhibitory influence on that neuron’s tendency to generate its own action potential. If the receiving neuron receives more excitatory than inhibitory inputs, more neural impulses are generated. A particular neural pathway may use only one or two neurotransmitters, each of which may have a specific effect on behavior and emotions. Acetylcholine, for example, is the neurotransmitter at every synapse between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle. Other known neurotransmitters include dopamine, which influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion; serotonin, which affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal; norepinephrine, which helps control alertness and arousal; gamma - aminobutyric acid ( GABA ) , which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter whose undersupply is linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia; and glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter involved in memory.
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Chapter 2 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 2:...

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