Chapter 3 (2) Study Guide

Chapter 3 (2) Study Guide - Chapter 3 The Nature and...

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Chapter 3: The Nature and Nurture of Behavior Chapter Overview Chapter 3 is concerned with the ways in which our biological heritage, or nature, interacts with our individual experiences, or nurture, to shape who we are. After a brief explanation of basic terminology, the chapter discusses psychology’s use of evolutionary principles to answer universal questions about human behavior. The next section explores the fields of behavior genetics, which studies twins and adopted children to weigh genetic and environmental influences on behaviors, and molecular genetics, which focuses on the specific genes that influence behavior. The third section of the chapter shifts the spotlight to focus on environmental influences on behavior. The impact of parents, the prenatal environment, early experience, peers, and culture on the development of the brain and behavior are each discussed in depth. The final section of the chapter explores how genes and environment interact to shape both the biological and social aspects of our gender. In the end, the message is clear: our genes and our experience together form who we are. Genes: Our Biological Blueprint ( pp. 100 - 101 ) David Myers at times uses idioms that are unfamiliar to some readers. If you do not know the meaning of the following word in the context in which it appears in the text, refer to page 103 for an explanation: blueprint . Section Preview First, skim this section, noting headings and boldface items. Then read the following objectives and, as you read the section, search for the information that will enable you to meet each objective. 1. Identify the mechanisms of heredity. 2. Explain why geneticists and psychologists are interested in the commonalities and variations in our genetic makeup. Stepping Through the Section After you have read the section, complete the sentences and answer the questions. As you proceed, evaluate your performance by consulting the answers. Do not continue with the next section until you understand each answer. If you need to, review or reread the section in the textbook before continuing. 1. A fundamental question in psychology deals with the extent to which we are shaped by our heredity, called our ______________ and by our life history, called our ______________ . 2. The master plans for development are stored in the ______________ . In number, each person inherits ______________ of these structures, ______________ from each parent. Each is composed of a coiled chain of the molecule ______________ . 3. If chromosomes are the “books” of heredity, the “words” that make each of us a distinctive human being are called______________ . These, in turn, are defined by pairings of four biochemical “letters” called ______________ . The sequence of these letters is ( very different/virtually the same ) from person to person. 4. The complete instructions for making an organism
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Chapter 3 (2) Study Guide - Chapter 3 The Nature and...

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