Chapter 3 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 3 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 3...

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Answers for Chapter 3: Nature-Nurture Genes: Our Biological Blueprint Section Preview 1. When a mature egg is fertilized by a sperm, the 23 chromosomes carried in the egg pair up with the 23 chromosomes of the sperm. Each chromosome is composed of long threads of a DNA molecule; DNA is made of thousands of genes that determine development by directing the synthesis of proteins. Our gene “words” are in turn defined by the sequencing of four biochemical “letters” called nucleotides: A, T, C, and G. Human genome researchers have discovered the common sequence of the 3.1 billion letters within human DNA. 2. Geneticists and psychologists are interested in our genetic commonalities and variations because they tell them why one person has a disease arid another does not, why one person is short and another is tall. Knowing why, they may find ways to treat physical and psychological problems. Stepping Through the Section 1. nature; nurture 2. chromosomes; 46; 23; DNA 3. genes; nucleotides; virtually the same 4. genome; gene complexes Evolutionary Psychology: Maximizing Fitness Section Preview 1. Evolutionary psychologists study how natural selection favors behavioral tendencies and information - processing systems that contributed to the survival and spread of our ancestors’ genes. Natural selection works on random errors in gene replication ( mutations ) , which are the basis of genetic diversity. 2. Throughout the world, gender differences in sexuality are apparent. Men are more likely than females to initiate sexual activity, they are more accepting of casual sex, and they report thinking about sex more often than women do. Men also have a lower threshold for perceiving someone’s warmth and friendliness as a sexual come - on. According to evolutionary psychologists, these differences may be grounded in biology. Because sperm are much more plentiful than eggs, natural selection may have favored different mating strategies and attitudes toward sex in males and females. As support for this argument, they suggest that while men are drawn to healthy, fertile - appearing women, women feel attracted to men who seem mature, dominant, and affluent. 3. Critics of evolutionary explanations of human behavior note that such explanations often start with an effect ( such as the gender sexuality difference ) and work backward to propose an explanation. Critics also point to the fact that standards of attractiveness vary with time and place, indicating that cultural expectations also shape sexuality. Finally, gender differences in mate preferences are larger in cultures with gender inequality than in those characterized by gender equality. Stepping Through the Section 1. natural selection 2. mutations; diversity 3. looser; flexibility; environments; fitness; survive; reproduce 4. evolutionary psychologists; genes 5. more; more; gender 6. lower; assertiveness 7. evolutionary; genes; are 8. youthful; mature; dominant; bold; affluent 9. backward; hindsight; cultural; inequality Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences Section Preview 1.Behavior geneticists focus on our individual
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