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Chapter 4 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 4 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 4...

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Answers for Chapter 4: The Developing Person Introducing the Developing Person Introduction Preview 1. Developmental psychologists study physical, mental, and social commonalities and changes throughout the human life cycle. 2. The nature - nurture issue is concerned with how much development is influenced by heredity and how much by experience. The continuity or stages issue concerns whether development is a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages. The stability or change issue asks whether individual traits persist over the life span or people become different persons as they age. Stepping Through the Introduction 1. developmental psychologists 2. nature - nurture 3. continuity/stages 4. stability Prenatal Development and the Newborn Section Preview 1. A woman’s ovary releases a mature egg. The few sperm from the man that reach the egg release digestive enzymes that eat away the egg’s protective covering. As soon as one sperm penetrates the egg, the egg’s surface blocks out all other sperm. The egg and sperm nuclei fuse and become one. Prenatal development is divided into three stages: zygote ( from conception to 2 weeks ) ; embryo ( 2 weeks through 8 weeks ) ; and fetus ( 9 weeks to birth ) . During the period of the zygote, cell division is the primary task. Within two weeks of conception the increasingly numerous cells begin to differentiate - to specialize in structure and function. At this time the zygote’s outer part attaches to the mother’s uterine wall, becoming the placenta. During the period of the embryo, body organs begin to form and function. By the end of the sixth month the fetus’s internal organs have become sufficiently functional to allow a premature fetus a chance of survival. 2. Teratogens are damaging agents such as chemicals and viruses that pass through the placenta into the embryo or fetus. Teratogens may result in a variety of physical and cognitive abnormalities in the developing child. For example, mothers who are heavy smokers often give birth to underweight infants. Mothers addicted to drugs such as heroin give birth to addicted newborns. If a mother is a heavy alcohol drinker, her infant may suffer from fetal alcohol syndrome, which is characterized by small, misproportioned heads and brain abnormalities, which lead to mental retardation. 3. Newborns are born with a variety of reflexes that help ensure their survival. When touched on its cheek, for example, a baby will open its mouth and search for food ( rooting reflex ) . The newborn’s sensory capabilities facilitate social responsiveness. Newborns prefer human voices and drawings of human faces. Within days of birth, babies can distinguish their mother’s odor and voice. 4. Psychologists use habituation, decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation, to study infant thinking. Infants respond to a novel stimulus with interest, but the more the stimulus is presented, the less the infant responds. If an infant responds when a new stimulus is presented, the researcher knows that
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