Chapter 6 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 6 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 6...

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Answers for Chapter 6: Perception Selective Attention and Perceptual Illusions Section Previews 1. Although we are constantly being bombarded by various stimuli, we attend to only some of them at any one time. Thus, we have selective attention, which determines the stimuli we perceive. An example is the cocktail party effect, whereby we attend to only one voice among many. This ability, which we demonstrate in each of our senses, prevents us from becoming overwhelmed by the immense array of stimuli that bombard our senses at any moment. 2. Understanding illusions requires an understanding of how we transform sensations into meaningful perceptions. Thus, for example, psychologists have learned a great deal about the interplay of size and distance from the Muller - Lyer illusion, about the principle of relative height from the horizontal - vertical illusion, and about principles of grouping and distance perception from the study of other illusions. Stepping Through the Sections 1. Plato 2. selective attention; cocktail party effect 3. change blindness; visual 4. visual capture Perceptual Organization Section Preview 1. The Gestalt psychologists demonstrated that perception involves the organization of sensations into meaningful wholes, or gestalts, that may exceed the sum of their individual parts and be regrouped into more than one perception. They also showed that to recognize an object, we must first perceive it as a figure distinct from its surrounding stimuli, or ground. The Gestalt psychologists identified several principles by which sensations are organized into meaningful perceptions; these include proximity, similarity, continuity, closure, and connectedness. 2. The visual cliff is a miniature cliff with an apparent drop - off on one side of a table. Gibson and Walk found that infants as young as 6 months of age refused to crawl out on the glass, despite their mother’s coaxing. Newborn animals with virtually no visual experience respond similarly, thus indicating that the ability to perceive depth is at least partly innate. 3. Three - dimensional movies create the impression of depth by simulating retinal disparity. Each scene is photographed with two cameras placed a few inches apart. Viewers wear spectacles that allow each eye to see only the image from one camera. The perceived depth occurs as each eye focuses on one of the two - dimensional images and the brain integrates them in a single 3 - D image. The binocular ( two - eye ) cues to depth include retinal disparity and convergence, and the monocular ( one - eye ) cues to depth include relative size, interposition, relative clarity, texture gradient, relative height, relative motion ( motion parallax ) , linear perspective, and light and shadow. 4. In general, we are very good at quickly detecting
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Chapter 6 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 6...

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