Chapter 7 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 7 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 7:...

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Answers for Chapter 7: States of Consciousness Waking Consciousness Section Preview 1. At its beginning, psychology focused on the description and explanation of states of consciousness. The difficulty of scientifically studying consciousness and the emergence of the school of behaviorism, however, caused psychology to shift to the study of overt behavior. By 1960, advances in neuroscience made it possible to relate brain activity to various mental states; as a result, mental concepts began to reenter psychology. Contemporary psychologists define consciousness as “our awareness of ourselves and our environment” and conduct research on attention, sleeping, dreaming, and altered states of consciousness induced by hypnosis and drugs. 2. Research reveals that information processing occurs at many levels, depending on the difficulty and familiarity of a task. Much information is processed without awareness. Less habitual tasks require conscious attention. Unlike the relatively slow, limited - capacity, serial processing of conscious information, subconscious information can be processed in parallel. 3. Daydreams help people prepare for future events by serving as mental rehearsals. For children, daydreaming is a form of imaginative play that fosters social and cognitive development. Daydreams may also substitute for impulsive behavior. Stepping Through the Section 1. consciousness; behavior Consciousness is our awareness of ourselves and our environment. 2. before; limited; slow; successively 3. require 4. do; more Daydreams help us prepare for future events by serving as mental rehearsals. For children, daydreaming in the form of imaginative play is important to social and cognitive development. Daydreams may also substitute for impulsive behavior ( people who are prone to delinquency and violence and drug users tend to have fewer vivid fantasies ) . Sleep and Dreams Section Preview 1. Controlled by internal “biological clocks,” our bodies’ biological rhythms include annual cycles of appetite, sleep length, and mood; 28 - day cycles such as the female menstrual cycle; 24 - hour cycles of varying alertness, body temperature, and growth hormone secretion; and 90 - minute cycles of the various stages of sleep. 2. The sleep - waking cycle is a circadian ( 24 - hour ) rhythm. The cycle of sleep is a 90 - or 100 - minute rhythm that consists of five distinct stages. During Stage 1 sleep, which lasts up to 5 minutes, breathing rate slows, brain waves become slow and irregular, and people often experience hallucination - like and hypnogogic sensations. The approximately 20 minutes of Stage 2 sleep are characterized by bursts of brain - wave activity ( sleep spindles ) . Starting in Stage 3 and increasingly in Stage 4, the sleeper’s brain emits large, slow delta waves, which last about 30 minutes. During this period, it is difficult to awaken
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Chapter 7 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 7:...

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