Chapter 8 (2) Study Guide

Chapter 8 (2) Study Guide - Chapter 8: Learning Chapter...

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Chapter 8: Learning Chapter Overview “No topic is closer to the heart of psychology than learning, a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience.” Chapter 8 covers the basic principles of three forms of learning: classical, or respondent, conditioning, in which we learn associations between events; operant conditioning, in which we learn to engage in behaviors that are rewarded and to avoid behaviors that are punished; and observational learning, in which we learn by observing and imitating others. The chapter also covers several important issues, including the generality of principles of learning, the role of cognitive processes in learning, and the ways in which learning is constrained by the biological predispositions of different species. Introducing Learning ( pp. 309 - 312 ) David Myers at times uses idioms that are unfamiliar to some readers. If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words, phrases, or expressions in the context in which they appear in the text, refer to page 257 for an explanation: ... breeds hope; mugged; Japanese rancher reportedly herds cattle. Introduction Preview First, skim the introduction. Then read the following objective and, as you read the text, search for the information that will enable you to meet that objective. 1. Discuss the importance of experience in learning, and describe the role of association in learning. Stepping Through the Introduction After you have read the introduction, complete the sentences and answer the questions. As you proceed, evaluate your performance by consulting the answers on page 247. Do not continue with the next section until you understand each answer. If you need to, review or reread the section in the textbook before continuing. 1. A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience is called ______________ . 2. More than 200 years ago, philosophers such as John Locke and David Hume argued that an important factor in learning is our tendency to ______________ events that occur in sequence. Even simple animals, such as the sea snail Aplysia, can learn simple ______________ between stimuli. This type of learning is called ______________ . 3. The type of learning in which the organism learns to associate two stimuli is ______________ conditioning. 4. The tendency of organisms to associate a response and its consequence forms the basis of ______________ conditioning. 5. Complex animals often learn behaviors merely by ______________ others perform them. Classical Conditioning ( pp. 312 - 322 ) If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words, phrases, or expressions in the context in which they appear in the text, refer to pages 257 - 258 for an explanation ( note that some items appear in the chapter introduction ) :... For many people, the name Ivan Pavlov. .. rings a bell; drooled; sets your mouth to watering; red - light district; breaking up. .. firebreathing heartthrob; willy - nilly; the thought that counts; we stand on his shoulders; crack
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Chapter 8 (2) Study Guide - Chapter 8: Learning Chapter...

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