Chapter 8 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 8 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 8:...

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Answers for Chapter 8: Learning Introduction Introduction Preview 1. Experience is the key to learning, which is defined as a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. This ability to learn from experience is the foundation for adaptability - the capacity to learn new behaviors that enable humans and animals to cope with ever - changing circumstances. As such philosophers as Aristotle, Locke, and Hume noted, our minds naturally link events that we have experienced together. This is the basis for associative learning, in which two stimuli ( as in classical conditioning ) or a response and a rewarding or punishing stimulus ( as in operant conditioning ) become linked because of their co - occurrence. Stepping Through the Introduction 1. learning 2. associate; associations; associative learning 3. classical 4. operant 5. observing Classical Conditioning Section Preview 1. In associative learning, organisms learn that certain events occur together. Through classical conditioning, organisms learn to anticipate and prepare for significant events, such as the delivery of food or a painful stimulus. In other words, they learn to associate two events. Classical conditioning occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus ( UCS ) . By itself, the UCS will automatically trigger a reflexive, unconditioned response ( UCR ) . If the association between the CS and UCS is predictable, conditioning will occur and the CS alone will eventually elicit a conditioned response ( CR ) similar to the UCR. 2.Acquisition refers to the initial stage of learning, during which the CR is established and gradually strengthened. Extinction refers to the diminishing of a CR when the CS is repeatedly presented without a UCS. Spontaneous recovery refers to the reappearance, after a period of rest, of a weakened CR. Generalization is the tendency for stimuli similar to the CS to evoke a CR. Discrimination is the ability to distinguish between an actual CS and similar stimuli that have not been associated with the UCS. 3. Pavlov, Watson, and the early behaviorists underestimated the importance of cognitive processes and biological constraints on learning. Research by Rescorla and Wagner demonstrated that classical conditioning occurs best when the association between a CS and UCS is predictable. This indicates that subjects develop a cognitive expectancy, or an awareness of how likely it is that the UCS will follow the CS. Garcia and Koelling’s studies of conditioned taste aversion demonstrated that animals are biologically primed to learn to associate certain CS’s with certain UCS’s. Rats, for example, develop aversions to the taste, but not the appearance, of tainted foods. In contrast, birds are biologically primed to develop aversions to the sight of tainted food. This violates the behaviorist tenet that any perceivable stimulus can become a CS. 4. Pavlov’s work showed that virtually all
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Chapter 8 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 8:...

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