Chapter 9 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 9 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 9...

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Answers for Chapter 9: Memory The Phenomenon of Memory Section Preview 1. To remember any event requires that we somehow get information into our brain ( encoding ) , retain it ( storage ) as short - or long - term memory, and get it back out ( retrieval ) . These three steps apply not only to human memory but also to other information - processing systems, such as computers. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin’s three - stage processing model, we first record to - be - remembered information as a brief sensory memory, from which it is processed into a short - term memory and then encoded into a durable long - term memory. Stepping Through the Section 1. memory 2. flashbulb 3. information - processing; encoding; storage; retrieval 4. three - stage processing; sensory memory; short - term; encoded; long - term 5. working; RAM; visual; verbal encoding: Getting Information In Section Preview 1. Encoding is the process by which sensory information is transferred into the memory system. Information about space, time, and frequency, as well as well - learned information, is encoded with little or no effort ( automatic processing ) . Encoding of most other types of information requires attention and conscious rehearsal ( effortful processing ) . 2. Ebbinghaus demonstrated that the amount of material remembered depends on the time spent rehearsing it. Even after material is learned, additional rehearsal ( overlearning ) increases retention. Experiments show that distributed study yields better long - term retention than cramming ( spacing effect ) . The serial position effect refers to the finding that people often remember the first and last items in a list better than they do middle items. 3. Studies by Craik and Tulving demonstrate that the processing of meaning ( semantic encoding ) yields better memory of verbal information than does the processing of images ( visual encoding ) or sounds ( acoustic encoding ) . Recall of information we relate to ourselves is particularly good. The imagery principle - that people have excellent memory for pictures and picture - evoking words - is at the heart of memory - enhancing mnemonic devices. In the method of loci and the “peg - word” system, we associate to - be - remembered items with visual codes. Organizing information into meaningful units, or chunks, also improves memory. The use of acronyms and hierarchies, for example, can facilitate both retention and retrieval. Stepping Through the Section 1. automatic; effortful Automatic processing includes the encoding of information about space, time, and frequency. It also includes the encoding of word meaning, a type of encoding that appears to be learned. Effortful processing, or encoding that requires attention and effort, is used to encode material like telephone numbers, word lists, textbook chapters, and so on. 2. rehearsal
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Chapter 9 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 9...

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