Chapter 10 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 10 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter...

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Answers for Chapter 10: Thinking & Language Thinking Section Preview 1. Concepts are mental groupings of similar objects, events, and people. Because they provide a great deal of information with minimal cognitive effort, concepts are the basic units of thinking. Most concepts are formed around a best example, or prototype, of a particular category. Concepts are often organized into hierarchies that further increase cognitive efficiency. 2. Trial and error is a haphazard strategy for solving problems, in which one solution after another is tried until success is achieved. Algorithms are methodical and logical rules or procedures for solving problems; they often are laborious and inefficient. Heuristics are simple thinking strategies. Although formally not a problem - solving strategy, a sudden flash of inspiration ( insight ) often helps us to solve problems. Insight has been seen in chimpanzees given challenging problems to solve. 3. The confirmation bias is an obstacle to problem solving in which people search for information that confirms their preconceptions. Another common obstacle to problem solving is fixation, an inability to approach a familiar problem in a new way. One example of fixation is the tendency to continue applying a particular problem - solving strategy even when it is no longer useful ( mental set ) . Another example is functional fixedness, whereby a person is unable to perceive unusual functions for familiar objects. 4. The representativeness heuristic is the tendency to judge the likelihood of things in terms of how well they represent particular prototypes. With the availability heuristic, we base our judgments on how readily information comes to mind. The overconfidence phenomenon is the tendency of people to overestimate the accuracy of their knowledge and judgments. Although overconfidence may blind us to our vulnerability to errors in reasoning, it has adaptive value in that it makes decision making somewhat easier. Framing refers to the way an issue or question is posed, which can greatly influence our perception of the issue or answer to the question. 5. Belief bias is the tendency for our beliefs to distort logical reasoning. An example of this common error is our tendency to accept as logical those conclusions that agree with our opinions. Belief perseverance is our tendency to cling to our beliefs even in the face of contrary evidence. Once beliefs are formed, it takes stronger evidence to change them than it did to create them. 6. Although both the mind and the computer process input from the environment, only humans truly think and feel. Computers excel at tasks that require the manipulation of large amounts of data. Unlike the human brain, which can process
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Chapter 10 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter...

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