Chapter 11 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 11 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter...

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Answers for Chapter 11: Intelligence The Origins of Intelligence Testing Section Preview 1. Modern intelligence testing began when Alfred Binet developed a test to predict children’s future school performance. Binet’s test was designed to compute a mental age for each child. Lewis Terman’s revision of Binet’s test, known as the Stanford - Binet, computed an IQ score as the ratio of mental age to chronological age. Modern intelligence tests no longer compute an intelligence quotient; instead, they produce a mental ability score based on the test - taker’s performance relative to the average of others the same age. Stepping Through the Section 1. intelligence 2. Plato 3. Binet; mental; was not 4. Stanford - Binet; intelligence quotient In the original formula for IQ measured mental age is divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100. “Mental age” refers to the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. 5. a mental ability score; the same; 100 6. below; cultural What Is Intelligence? Section Preview 1. Intelligence is a socially constructed concept defined as the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. The two controversies regarding intelligence are ( a ) whether intelligence is a single overall ability or several specific abilities and ( b ) whether intelligence can be located and measured within the brain. 2. Factor analysis is a statistical technique used to identify clusters of test items that measure a common ability, such as spatial or reasoning ability. Although psychologists agree that people have specific abilities, such as verbal or mathematical intelligence, they do not agree about the existence of an underlying general intelligence factor, as believed by Spearman. People with savant syndrome, who score very low on intelligence tests but possess extraordinary specific abilities, provide support for the viewpoint that there are multiple intelligences, each independent of the others. Sternberg and Wagner, for example, distinguish among three intelligences academic, practical, and creative while Cantor and Kihistrom distinguish between academic and social intelligence ( including emotional intelligence ) and Gardner, among eight different intelligences. 3. Creativity is the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas. Although people with high intelligence scores do well on tests of creativity, beyond an intelligence score of about 120, the correlation between intelligence scores and creativity disappears. Studies suggest five components to creativity other than intelligence: expertise, imaginative thinking skills, a venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation, and a creative environment. 4. Efforts to link brain structure and cognition continue. Studies using NM scans reveal modest correlations between brain size ( adjusted for body size ) and intelligence. Other researchers have found that highly intelligent people differ in their neural plasticity and that people with
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Chapter 11 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter...

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