CHAPTER 12 (SUMMARY): MOTIVATION AND WORK
Motivation is a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. The early view that instincts
control behavior was replaced by drive-reduction theory, which maintains that physiological
needs create psychological drives that seek to restore internal stability, or homeostasis. In
addition, some motivated behaviors increase arousal, and we are pulled by external incentives.
According to Maslow, some motives are more compelling than others.
Hunger seems to originate from changes in glucose and insulin levels that are monitored by
the hypothalamus, as well as changes in the levels of leptin, orexin, and PYY. To maintain a set-
point weight, the body also adjusts its basal metabolic rate. Body chemistry and environmental
factors together influence our taste preferences. Psychological influences on eating behavior are
most evident in those who are motivated to be abnormally thin.
Like hunger, sexual motivation depends on the interplay of internal and external stimuli. In
nonhuman animals, hormones help stimulate sexual activity. In humans, they influence sexual
behavior more loosely. One’s sexual orientation seems neither willfully chosen nor willfully
changed; new research links sexual orientation to biological factors.
The need to belong, is a major influence in motivating human behavior. Social bonds
boosted our ancestors’ survival rates. We experience our need to belong when feeling the gloom
of loneliness or joy of love, and when seeking social acceptance.
Work meets several human needs. The growing field of industrial-organizational psychology
attempts to match people to work, enhance employee satisfaction and productivity, and explore
strategies for effective workplace management.
People who excel are often self-disciplined individuals with strong achievement motivation.
Effective leaders build on people’s strengths, work with them to set specific and challenging
goals, and adapt their leadership style to the situation.
Defining motivation; Theories of motivated behavior.
A motivation is a need or desire that serves to energize behavior and to direct it toward a goal.
Under Darwin’s influence, early theorists viewed behavior as being controlled by biological
forces, such as instincts. When it became clear that people were naming, not explaining, various
behaviors by calling them instincts, this approach fell into disfavor. The idea that genes
predispose species-typical behavior is still influential in evolutionary psychology. Psychologists
next turned to a drive-reduction theory of motivation. Most physiological needs create aroused
psychological states that drive us to reduce or satisfy those needs. The aim of drive reduction is
internal stability, or homeostasis. Furthermore, we are not only pushed by internal drives but we
are also pulled by external incentives. Rather than reducing a physiological need or minimizing
tension, some motivated behaviors increase arousal. Curiosity-driven behaviors, for example,