Chapter 12: Motivation and Work
Motivation is the study of forces that energize and direct
our behavior. Chapter 12 discusses various motivational
concepts and looks closely at four motives: hunger, sex, the
need to belong, and motivation at work. Research on
hunger points to the interplay between physiological and
internal and external
factors in motivation.
Sexual motivation in men and women is triggered less by
physiological factors and more by external incentives. Even
so, research studies demonstrate that sexual orientation is
neither willfully chosen, nor easily changed. Research on
worker motivation reveals that workers who view their
careers as a meaningful calling, those working in jobs that
optimize their skills, and those who become absorbed in
activities that result in “flow” find work satisfying and
enriching. Effective leaders recognize this and develop
management styles that focus on workers’ strengths and
adapt their leadership style to the situation.
David Myers at times uses idioms that are
unfamiliar to some readers. If you do not know the
meaning of the following words in the context in
which it appears in the text, refer to
for an explanation:
First, skim the introduction. Then read the following
objective and, as you read the text, search for the
information that will enable you to meet that objective.
1. Define motivation.
If you do not know the meaning of any of the
following words, phrases, or expressions, in the
context in which they appear in the text, refer to
Focus on Vocabulary
for an explanation:
this fad for
naming instincts collapsed under its own weight; feedback
loops; monkey around
First, skim the section, noting headings and boldface items.
Then read the following objectives and, as you read the
text, search for the information that will enable you to
meet each objective.
1. Discuss the three perspectives that have influenced our
understanding of motivation.
2. Discuss Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Stepping Through the Section
After you have read the section, complete the sentences
and answer the questions. Do not continue with the next
section until you understand each answer. If you need to,
review or reread the section in the textbook before
1. As a result of Darwin’s influence, many behaviors were
classified as rigid, unlearned behavior patterns that are
characteristic of a species, called
Discuss why early instinct theory failed as an explanation of
2. The idea underlying the theory that
_____________________ predispose species
behavior remains popular.
3. According to another view of motivation, organisms
may experience a physiological
_____________________, which creates a state of
arousal that _____________________ the organism to
reduce the need.