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Unformatted text preview: Answers for Chapter 12: Motivation and Work Introduction Section Preview 1. Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal. Motivational Concepts Section Preview 1.The earliest theory classified motivated behavior as instinctive and unlearned; more recently, the evolutionary perspective contends that genes predispose species- typical behavior. Drive- reduction theory argues that a physiological need- not necessarily an instinct- creates a psychological state. People are not only pushed by the need to reduce drives but also pulled by incentives. Arousal theory emphasizes the urge for an optimum level of stimulation. 2. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs expresses the idea that some needs are more fundamental than others. Maslow proposed that physiological needs, such as for food, water, and shelter, are the most basic and must be met before we are motivated to meet “higher” needs for safety, belongingness and love, self- esteem, and self- actualization. Critics of Maslow’s theory contend that the proposed sequence of needs is arbitrary and not universally fixed. Stepping Through the Section 1. instincts According to instinct theory, any human behavior could be regarded as an instinct. The only evidence for each such “instinct” was the behavior used to identify it. Thus, instinct theory offered only circular explanations; it labeled behaviors but did not explain them. 2. genes 3. need; drives 4. homeostasis; incentives 5. increase; do not 6. hierarchy 7. physiological; self- actualization; arbitrary; universally 8. financial; home- life; self- esteem Hunger Section Preview 1. Although stomach pangs correlate with feelings of hunger, they are not the only source. Hunger also increases when increases in insulin diminish the secretion of glucose into the bloodstream. Blood chemistry is monitored by the lateral and ventromedial areas of the hypothalamus, which therefore control body weight. The hypothalamus also monitors levels of the hormone leptin to estimate body fat. Animal research shows that when the LH is electrically stimulated, hunger increases; when the LH is destroyed, hunger decreases. Stimulation of the VMH depresses hunger, while its destruction will increase hunger and trigger rapid weight gain. The body also adjusts its basal metabolic rate to maintain its weight set point. 2. Several hormones are involved in regulating hunger and fullness. These include insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas that controls blood glucose; leptin, a protein produced by bloated fat cells that causes the brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger; orexin, a hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates hunger; ghrelin, a hormone secreted by the empty stomach that sends a hunger signal to the brain; and PYY, a digestive tract hormone that signals fullness....
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- Human Sexuality, Sexual intercourse, Sexual arousal, Orgasm