Chapter 13 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 13 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter...

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Answers for Chapter 13: Emotion Introduction Preview 1. Emotions involve a mixture of physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience. Theories of Emotion Section Preview 1. According to the James - Lange theory, the experience of emotion results from awareness of the physiological responses to emotion - arousing stimuli. According to the Cannon - Bard theory, an emotion - arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex, which causes the subjective experience of emotion, and to the sympathetic nervous system, which causes the body’s physiological arousal. In criticizing the James - Lange theory, Walter Cannon argued that the body’s responses were not sufficiently distinct to trigger the different emotions. The James - Lange theory has recently received support from evidence showing that there are physiological distinctions among the emotions and that emotions are diminished when the brain’s awareness of the body’s reactions is reduced. However, many researchers continue to agree with Cannon and Bard that the experience of emotion also involves cognitive activity. Schachter’s two - factor theory of emotion proposes that emotions have two components: physical arousal and a cognitive label. Like the James - Lange theory, the two - factor theory presumes that our experience of emotion stems from our awareness of physical arousal. Like the Cannon - Bard theory, the two - factor theory presumes that emotions are physiologically similar and require a conscious interpretation of the arousal. 2. Although complex emotions, such as guilt, happiness, and love, clearly arise from conscious thought, there is evidence that we can experience some emotions before we have time to think about the situation. When people repeatedly view stimuli they are not consciously aware of ( subliminal stimuli ) , for example, they come to prefer those stimuli. Furthermore, some neural pathways involved in emotion, such as the one that links the eye to the amygdala, bypass cortical areas involved in thinking and enable an automatic emotional response. Worldwide, people experience emotions along two dimensions: pleasant versus unpleasant ( the emotion’s valence ) and high versus low arousal. For people who are energized by arousal, arousal has a positive valence; if arousal causes fear in the person, it has a negative valence. Stepping Through the Section 1. follow. Cannon argued that the body’s responses were not sufficiently distinct to trigger the different emotions and, furthermore, that physiological changes occur too slowly to trigger sudden emotion. 2. cortex; sympathetic; Cannon - Bard 3. diminish; James - Lange 4. agree; cognition 5. physiological; cognitive; Schachter 6. did not; did 7. can First, experiments on subliminal perception indicate that although stimuli are not consciously perceived, subjects later prefer these stimuli to others they have never been exposed to. Second, there is some separation of the neural pathways involved in emotion and cognition. 8. eye or ear; thalamus; amygdala; cognition
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Chapter 13 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter...

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