Chapter 14 (1) Summary

Chapter 14 (1) Summary - CHAPTER 14 (SUMMARY): STRESS AND...

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CHAPTER 14 (SUMMARY): STRESS AND HEALTH Overview Health psychology provides psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine. Among its concerns are the effects of stress and how to control stress, how our emotions and personality influence our risk of disease, and the promotion of healthier living. Walter Cannon viewed our response to stress as a “fight or flight” system. Hans Selye saw it as a three-stage, general adaptation syndrome. Modern research assesses the health consequences of various life experiences. Events are particularly stressful when perceived as both negative and uncontrollable. Coronary heart disease has been linked with the anger-prone Type A personality. Stress also makes a person more vulnerable to infections and malignancy. Stress management programs include training in aerobic exercise, biofeedback, and relaxation. Although biofeedback can sometimes help people control tension headaches and high blood pressure, simple relaxation exercises offer some of the same benefits. Social support also buffers the impact of stress. Researchers seek to identify “intervening variables” that may link spirituality and health. In attempting to reduce cigarette smoking, psychologists have studied the social influences that motivate adolescents to start smoking and the reinforcers that maintain the habit. Other researchers are exploring how foods affect mood and behavior. In studying obesity, psychologists have found that a number of physiological factors make it difficult to lose weight permanently. Those who wish to diet should minimize exposure to food cues, boost energy expenditure through exercise, make a lifelong change in eating patterns, and set realistic goals. The major concerns of health psychology. Behavioral medicine is an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease. Its goals are to understand and modify behavioral sources of illness, and thereby lessen people’s suffering and increase their life expectancy and quality of life. Health psychologists  are concerned with how our emotions and personality influence our risk of disease, the effects of stress, and the promotion of healthier living. Stress and Illness The “fight-or-flight” response to stress; physical characteristics and phases of the general adaptation syndrome. Walter Cannon observed that, in response to stress, the sympathetic nervous system activates the secretion of stress hormones, triggers increased heart rate and respiration, diverts blood to skeletal muscles, and releases sugar and fat from the body’s stores, all to prepare the body for either “fight or flight.” In Hans Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS), the body’s adaptive response to stress is
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Chapter 14 (1) Summary - CHAPTER 14 (SUMMARY): STRESS AND...

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