Chapter 14 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 14 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter...

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Answers for Chapter 14: Stress and Health Introduction Preview 1. Because half the mortality from the 10 leading causes of death can be traced to people’s behavior, the interdisciplinary field of behavioral medicine emerged with the goal of identifying and modifying these behavioral sources of illness. Health psychology’s major concerns include the following: how our emotions and responses to stress influence our risk of disease, what attitudes and behaviors help prevent illness and promote health and well - being, and how we can reduce or control stress. Stepping Through the Introduction 1. heart disease; cancer; stroke; chronic lung disease 2. behavior 3. cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, unprotected sex, ignoring doctors’ orders, insufficient exercise, use of illicit drugs, poor nutrition 4. behavioral medicine 5. health Stress and Illness Section Preview 1. Stress is the process by which we appraise and respond to events that threaten or challenge us. Stress triggers an outpouring of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol from nerve endings in the adrenal glands of the sympathetic nervous system. These stress hormones increase heart rate and respiration, divert blood from digestion to skeletal muscles, dull pain, and release sugar and fat from the body’s stores to prepare the body for “fight or flight.” Hans Selye saw the body’s reaction to stress as having three phases ( general adaptation syndrome ) : the alarm reaction, in which the body’s resources are mobilized; resistance, in which stress hormones flow freely to help cope with the stressor; and exhaustion, when reserves are depleted and illness is more likely. 2. Some studies have shown that stressful events, such as catastrophes, are closely followed by an increase in psychological disorders and even deaths. The level of stress we experience depends on how we appraise such events. Catastrophes, significant life changes, and daily hassles are especially stressful when they are appraised as uncontrollable and negative, and when we have a pessimistic outlook. Pessimism and a perceived loss of control, for example, trigger an outpouring of stress hormones. In such circumstances, vulnerability to disease may increase. Lack of control may help explain the fact that poor people are at increased risk for poor health and premature death. Regardless of their income, people also tend to die younger in areas where there is greater income inequality. 3. Friedman and Rosenman discovered that stress triggers a variety of physical changes, such as increased cholesterol and blood - clotting speed, that may promote coronary heart disease. According to their designation, Type A people are competitive, hard - driving, impatient, time - conscious, verbally aggressive, and easily angered, and thus more prone to coronary disease. The most significant factor is the tendency toward the negative emotions of anger, pessimism, and depression. In contrast, Type B people are more relaxed and easygoing. 4. The immune system includes two types of white
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Chapter 14 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter...

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