Chapter 15 (1) Summary

Chapter 15 (1) Summary - C HAPTER 15 (SUMMARY): PERSONALITY...

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CHAPTER 15 (SUMMARY): PERSONALITY Overview Personality is one’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Historic views of personality are grounded in Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective and the humanistic perspective advanced by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. For Sigmund Freud, the father of the psychoanalytic perspective, conflict between pleasure- seeking biological impulses and social restraints centered on three interacting systems: id, ego, and superego. Freud believed that children develop through psychosexual stages and that people’s later problems are rooted in how they resolve conflicts associated with these stages. The neo-Freudians agreed with Freud’s basic ideas but placed more emphasis on the conscious mind and on social influences. Today, psychodynamic theorists agree with many of Freud’s views but not his idea that sex is the basis of personality. The humanistic perspective emphasizes the growth potential of healthy people. Abraham Maslow believed that if basic human needs are met, people will strive to actualize their highest potential. Carl Rogers suggested that being genuine, accepting, and empathic helps others to develop a positive self-concept. Much of contemporary research focuses on the existence and consistency of personality traits and on the reciprocal effects of personal, cognitive, and environmental factors on personality. The trait perspective attempts to describe the predispositions that underlie our actions. Through factor analysis, researchers have isolated five distinct dimensions of personality. The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes how personal-cognitive factors combine with the environment to influence behavior. Researchers assess how people’s behaviors and beliefs both affect and are affected by their situations. Most currently, the self is one of Western psychology’s more vigorously researched topics. Studies confirm the benefits of positive self-esteem but also point to the possible hazards of pride. Individuals and cultures vary in whether they prioritize “me” or “we.” Cognitive science indicates that, more than most of us realize, our lives are guided by nonconscious information processing. Historic Perspectives on Personality Defining personality; How Freud’s treatment of psychological disorders led to his study of the unconscious. Psychologists consider personality to be one’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. If your behavior pattern is strikingly distinctive and consistent, people are likely to say you have a “strong” personality. This chapter explores and evaluates key historic perspectives on personality and then considers contemporary research on our enduring traits and sense of self. Freud found that nervous disorders often made no neurological sense. Piecing together his
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Chapter 15 (1) Summary - C HAPTER 15 (SUMMARY): PERSONALITY...

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