Chapter 15 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 15 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter...

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Answers for Chapter 15: Personality Introducing Personality Introduction Preview 1. Personality is your characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Unlike other areas of study in psychology, which focus on similarities among people, personality emphasizes the uniqueness of the individual. Historic Perspectives on Personality Section Preview 1. Freud discovered that, under hypnosis, his patients were sometimes able to talk freely about their neurological symptoms, which led to their improvement. He later began using free association instead of hypnosis, believing that this technique triggered a chain of thoughts leading into a patient’s unconscious, thereby retrieving and releasing painful unconscious memories. Psychoanalysis is based on Freud’s belief that below our surface consciousness is a much larger, unconscious region that contains thoughts, feelings, wishes, and memories of which we are unaware. Although some of these thoughts are held in a preconscious area and can be retrieved at will into consciousness, some unacceptable thoughts and wishes are forcibly blocked, or repressed, from consciousness. These unconscious thoughts and urges often are expressed in troubling symptoms. 2. To Freud, personality is composed of three interacting, and often conflicting, systems: the id, ego, and superego. Operating on the pleasure principle, the unconscious id strives to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce, and aggress. Operating on the reality principle, the ego seeks to gratify the id’s impulses in realistic and nondestructive ways. The superego, which represents the individual’s internalization of the morals and values of parents and culture, forces the ego to consider not only the real but also the ideal. Because the ego must intervene among the impulsive demands of the id, the restraining demands of the superego, and those of the external world, it is the personality “executive.” 3. Freud believed that children pass through a series of psychosexual stages during which the id’s pleasure - seeking energies focus on particular erogenous zones. Between birth and 18 months ( oral stage ) , pleasure centers on the mouth. Between 18 and 36 months ( anal stage ) , pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder retention and elimination. Between 3 and 6 years ( phallic stage ) , the pleasure zone shifts to the genitals, and boys develop unconscious sexual desires for their mothers and the fear that their fathers will punish them ( Oedipus complex ) . Children eventually cope with these threatening feelings by repressing them and identifying with their same - sex parent. Between 6 years of age and puberty ( latency stage ) , sexual feelings are repressed and redirected. At puberty, sexual interests mature as youths begin to experience sexual feelings toward others ( genital stage ) . 4. According to Freud, maladaptive adult behavior results
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Chapter 15 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter...

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