Chapter 16 (1) Summary

Chapter 16 (1) Summary - C HAPTER 16(SUMMARY PSYCHOLOGICAL...

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CHAPTER 16 (SUMMARY): PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Overview Mental health workers label behavior psychologically disordered when it is atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) provides an authoritative classification scheme. Although diagnostic labels may facilitate communication and research, they can also bias our perception of people’s past and present behavior and unfairly stigmatize these individuals. Those who suffer an anxiety disorder may for no reason feel uncontrollably tense (generalized anxiety disorder), may have a persistent irrational fear (phobia), or may be troubled by repetitive thoughts and actions (obsessive-compulsive disorder). Mood disorders include major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Current research on depression is exploring (1) genetic and biochemical influences and (2) cyclic self-defeating beliefs, learned helplessness, negative attributions, and aversive experiences. Under extreme stress, conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. Those afflicted with a dissociative disorder may even have two or more distinct personalities. The symptoms of schizophrenia include disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions. Researchers have linked certain forms of schizophrenia to brain abnormalities. Studies also point to a genetic predisposition that may work in conjunction with environmental factors. Personality disorders are characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. The most common is the remorseless and fearless antisocial personality. Survey results indicate that 1 in 6 U.S. and British adults suffers clinically significant mental disorders. Most show the first symptoms by early adulthood. Perspectives on Psychological Disorders Criteria for judging whether behavior is psychologically disordered. There is a fine and somewhat arbitrary line between normality and abnormality. A psychological disorder is a harmful dysfunction in which behavior is judged atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable. The medical model of psychological disorders; the bio-psycho-social perspective offered by critics of this model. The medical model assumes that psychological disorders are mental illnesses that need to be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy. Critics argue that psychological disorders may not reflect a deep internal problem but instead a growth-blocking difficulty in the person’s environment, in the person’s current interpretation of events, or in the
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Chapter 16 (1) Summary - C HAPTER 16(SUMMARY PSYCHOLOGICAL...

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