Chapter 17 (1) Summary

Chapter 17 (1) Summary - C HAPTER 17(SUMMARY THERAPY...

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CHAPTER 17 (SUMMARY): THERAPY Overview The major psychotherapies  derive from the psychoanalytic, humanistic, behavioral, and cognitive perspectives. Half of all therapists take an eclectic approach, using a blend of therapies. Psychoanalysts use free association and the interpretation of dreams, resistances, and transference to help their patients gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorders and to work through the accompanying feelings. Humanistic therapy focuses on clients’ conscious feelings and on their taking responsibility for their own growth. Client-centered therapists use active listening to express genuineness, acceptance, and empathy. Behavior therapists emphasize the direct modification of problem behaviors. They use exposure therapies such as systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning, and they may also apply operant conditioning principles with techniques such as token economies. Cognitive therapies aim to change self-defeating thinking by training people to view themselves in new, more positive ways. Except for traditional psychoanalysis, these various types of therapies may also occur in therapist-led small groups. One special type of group therapy, family therapy, assumes that no person is an island. Research on the effectiveness of therapy indicates that people who receive therapy are more likely to improve than the untreated. However, the friendly counsel of paraprofessionals also tends to produce more improvement than occurs with untreated people. Administration of antipsychotic, antianxiety, and antidepressant drugs constitutes the most widely used biomedical therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy, although controversial, continues to be an effective treatment for many severely depressed people who do not respond to drug therapy. Psychosurgery is rarely used to alleviate specific problems largely because the effects are irreversible and potentially drastic. Preventive mental health experts aim to change oppressive, esteem-destroying environments into more benevolent, nurturing environments that foster individual growth and self-confidence. The Psychological Therapies Psychotherapy is a “planned, emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained, socially sanctioned healer and a sufferer.” Half of psychotherapists take an eclectic approach , which is a blend of therapies. Closely related to eclecticism is psychotherapy integration, which combines the therapies into a single, coherent system. Videos: Ordinary People and Psychotherapy; Approaches to Therapy Aims and methods of psychoanalysis; Concerns with this form of therapy; How psychodynamic therapists address the criticisms. The goal of psychoanalysis is to help people gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorders and to work through the accompanying feelings. To do so, analysts draw on techniques such as free association and the interpretation  of dreams, resistances, and the
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transference to the therapist of long-repressed feelings. Like the psychoanalytic perspective on
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