Chapter 17 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 17 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 17...

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Unformatted text preview: Answers for Chapter 17: Therapy The Psychological Therapies Section Preview 1. Psychotherapy is “a planned, emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a socially sanctioned healer and a sufferer.” The various types of psychotherapy derive from psychology’s major personality theories: psychoanalytic, humanistic, behavioral, and cognitive. Half of all contemporary psychotherapists take an eclectic approach, using a blend of therapies tailored to meet their clients’ particular problems. 2. Psychoanalysis assumes that psychological problems are caused by repressed unconscious impulses and conflicts that develop during childhood, and so its goal is to bring these feelings into conscious awareness and help the person work through them. Psychoanalysts may ask their patients to report everything that comes to mind ( free association ) . Blocks in the flow of retrieval ( resistance ) are believed to indicate the repression of sensitive material. The analyst’s interpretations of resistances aim to provide the patients with insight into their underlying meaning. Psychoanalysts interpret dreams for their latent content and the transference of feelings from early relationships in order to expose repressed feelings. Psychodynamic therapists also try to understand a patient’s symptoms by exploring childhood experiences, but may talk face to face, with therapy lasting for only a few weeks or months. A new form of this therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, focuses on current relationships ( rather than on past hurts ) and symptom relief in the here and now. Psychoanalysis has been criticized for offering interpretations that are impossible to prove or disprove and for being a lengthy and expensive process that only the relatively well- off can afford. 3. Humanistic therapists aim to boost self- fulfillment by helping people grow in self- awareness and self- acceptance. Unlike psychoanalysis, humanistic therapies focus on conscious thoughts as they occur in the present. Carl Rogers’ non- directive client- centered therapy ( also called person- centered therapy ) , which is based on the assumption that most people have within themselves the resources for growth, aims to provide an environment in which therapists exhibit genuineness, acceptance, and empathy. Humanistic therapists often use active listening to provide a psychological mirror that helps clients see themselves more clearly. 4. Behavior therapy applies learning principles to eliminate unwanted behavior. Counterconditioning describes classical- conditioning procedures that condition new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors. One type of counterconditioning, systematic desensitization, is used to treat phobias, for example, by conditioning people to associate a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety- provoking stimuli. It is a prime example of exposure therapy. Aversive conditioning is a type of counterconditioning that associates unwanted behavior ( such as drinking alcohol...
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Chapter 17 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 17...

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