Chapter 18 (2) Study Guide

Chapter 18 (2) Study Guide - Chapter 18: Social Psychology...

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Chapter 18: Social Psychology Chapter Overview Chapter 18 demonstrates the powerful influences of social situations on the behavior of individuals. Central to this topic are research studies on attitudes and actions, conformity, compliance, and group and cultural influences. The social principles that emerge help us to understand how individuals are influenced by advertising, political candidates, and the various groups to which they belong. Although social influences are powerful, it is important to remember the significant role of individuals in choosing and creating the social situations that influence them. The chapter also discusses how people relate to one another, from the negative - developing prejudice, behaving aggressively, and provoking conflict to the positive - being attracted to people who are nearby and/or similar and behaving altruistically. The chapter concludes with a discussion of techniques that have been shown to promote conflict resolution. Although there is some terminology for you to learn in this chapter, your primary task is to absorb the findings of the many research studies discussed. The chapter headings, which organize the findings, should prove especially useful to you here. In addition, you might, for each main topic ( conformity, group influence, aggression, etc. ) , ask yourself the question, “What situational factors promote this phenomenon?” The research findings can then form the basis for your answers. Social Thinking ( pp. 695 - 702 ) David Myers at times uses idioms that are unfamiliar to some readers. If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words, phrases, or expressions in the context in which they appear in the text, refer to Focus on Vocabulary for an explanation: typecast; tart - tongued remark; freeloaders; people often talk and act a different game; brainwashed; chicken - and - egg spiral; heartening implications. Section Preview First, skim the section, noting headings and boldface items. Then read the following objectives and, as you read the text, search for the information that will enable you to meet each objective. 1. Discuss attribution theory, focusing on the fundamental attribution error, and describe some possible effects of attribution. 2. Define attitude and identify the conditions under which attitudes predict behavior. 3. Describe how actions influence attitudes, and explain how cognitive dissonance theory accounts for this phenomenon. Stepping Through the Section After you have read the section, complete the sentences and answer the questions. As you proceed, evaluate your performance by consulting the answers. Do not continue with the next section until you understand each answer. If you need to, review or reread the section in the textbook before continuing. 1. Psychologists who study how we think about,
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Chapter 18 (2) Study Guide - Chapter 18: Social Psychology...

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