Chapter 18 (3) Study Guide Answers

Chapter 18 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 18...

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Answers for Chapter 18: Social Psychology Social Thinking Section Preview 1. According to attribution theory, people explain others’ behavior as being due either to their dispositions or to their situations. Because people have enduring personality traits, we tend to overestimate the influence of personality and underestimate the impact of situational influences, particularly when explaining others’ behavior. This is called the fundamental attribution error. When explaining our own behavior, or when we take another’s perspective, we are less likely to make this type of error. Our attributions, of course, have important practical consequences. For example, there are political implications to the question of whether people’s behavior is attributed to social conditions or to their own choices, abilities, and shortcomings. 2. An attitude is a belief and feeling that predisposes our reactions to objects, people, and events. Our attitudes are most likely to guide our actions when outside influences on what we say and do are minimal, when the attitude is specifically relevant to the behavior, and when we are aware of our attitudes. 3. Studies of the foot - in - the - door phenomenon and role playing demonstrate that our actions can influence our attitudes. The foot - in - the - door phenomenon is the tendency for people who agree to a small request to comply later with a larger one. Similarly, people who play a role tend to adjust their attitudes to coincide with behavior enacted while playing the role. The theory of cognitive dissonance maintains that when our thoughts and behaviors don’t coincide, we experience tension. To relieve this tension, we bring our attitudes into line with our actions. Stepping Through the Section 1. social psychologists 2. attribution; dispositional attribution; situational attribution 3. underestimate; attention; fundamental attribution error; weaker; reversed Our attributions - to individuals’ dispositions or to situations - have important practical consequences. A hurtful remark from an acquaintance, for example, is more likely to be forgiven if it is attributed to a temporary situation than to a mean disposition. 4. attitudes 5. challenged Attitudes predict actions when other influences on the attitudes and actions are minimized, when the attitude is specifically relevant to the behavior, and when we are especially aware of our attitudes. Thus, our attitudes are more likely to predict behavior when we are not attempting to adjust our behavior to please others, when we are in familiar situations in which we don’t have to stop and think about our attitudes, and when the attitude pertains to a specific behavior, such as purchasing a product or casting a vote. 6. actions or behavior; foot
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Chapter 18 (3) Study Guide Answers - Answers for Chapter 18...

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