Lsn6 - Burn temp of JP-4 2000 deg F Steel Modulus vs Temp...

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Case Study: WTC “Twin Towers”
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Some Numbers
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WTC Structure & Collapse
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Some Numbers Max TOGW of 767: 412,000 pounds Kinetic energy, both planes: 9 x 10 9 Joules ~ 2 tons TNT Height of the Towers: 1365 feet Weight of the Towers: 1.25 million tons Collapse Energy: 2 x 10 12 Joules ~ 500 tons TNT Energy/gallon of JP-4: 135,000 BTU 767 fuel capacity: 24,000 gallons Approx fuel detonated at impact: 3,000 gallons 12 Source: Scientific American, Nov 2001, p. 15
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Source: Metals Handbook, Vol 1
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Unformatted text preview: Burn temp of JP-4: 2000 deg F Steel Modulus vs. Temp Failure Theory • Impact energy of B767 severed ~half of vertical supports (but towers didn’t fall) • Burning residual fuel cooked remaining structural elements at 2000 o F for 45 to 110 minutes • Pyrophoric Al from airframe melts, burns at 3270 o F • Remaining steel beams: Melt? Yield? Buckle? • Summarizing: – What happened? – How did it happen? – Implications? – Recommendations?...
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Lsn6 - Burn temp of JP-4 2000 deg F Steel Modulus vs Temp...

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