In sufficiently dilute solutions which is concerned

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Unformatted text preview: te solutions (which is concerned in sufficiently dilute solutions (which is concerned in this text), there is negligible difference between the concentrations and activities of species. For reactions taking place in aqueous solution, the molar concentration of water is not included in expressions for Q or K. Q NH3(aq) + H2O (l) ⇌ NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq) NH OH NH3 4 2 The Reaction Quotient and the Equilibrium Constant Reaction Quotient The Relationship between Q and K in Reaction Mixtures Mixtures Reactants and products: the species on the left and right sides of the written reaction equation, respectively. Q = K. The reaction mixture is at equilibrium Q < K. Equilibrium is attained if net reaction changes reactants into products. Q > K. Equilibrium is attained if net reaction changes products into reactants. The Reaction Quotient and the Equilibrium Constant Quantitative Aspects of Equilibrium Constants Spontaneous Reaction Direction, Stability, Gibbs Free Energy Spontaneous direction of reaction: the direction in which net reaction occurs to bring a reaction mixture to equilibrium Q<K Q=K Q>K reactants → products reaction at equilibrium products → reactants Magnitude of K and Extent of Reaction Product-favoured reactions: K >> 1 reactions: >> Reactant-favoured reactions: K << 1 As spontaneous reaction proceeds, the reaction mixture becomes more stable, reaching maximum stability at equilibrium...
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2011 for the course MAC AECH111 taught by Professor Cheresres during the Spring '11 term at McGill.

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