04_Lecture_W2011

04_Lecture_W2011 - Overview: Carbon: The Backbone of Life...

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1 hapter 4 Chapter 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Overview: Carbon: The Backbone of Life Although cells are 70–95% water, the rest consists mostly of carbon-based compounds Carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large, complex, and diverse molecules Proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and other molecules that distinguish living matter are all composed of carbon compounds Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Organic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain carbon Organic compounds range from simple molecules to colossal ones Most organic compounds contain hydrogen atoms in addition to carbon atoms Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms Electron configuration is the key to an atom’s characteristics Electron configuration determines the kinds and number of bonds an atom will form with other atoms
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2 The Formation of Bonds with Carbon With four valence electrons, carbon can form four covalent bonds with a variety of atoms This tetravalence makes large, complex molecules possible In molecules with multiple carbons, each carbon bonded to four other atoms has a trahedral shape tetrahedral shape However, when two carbon atoms are joined by a double bond, the molecule has a flat shape Carbon atoms can partner with atoms other than hydrogen; for example: Carbon dioxide: CO 2 Urea: CO(NH 2 ) 2 O = C = O Molecular Diversity Arising from Carbon Skeleton Variation Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules Carbon chains vary in length and shape Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-Filling Model (a) Methane (b) Ethane (c) Ethene (ethylene)
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3 Ethane Propane 1-Butene 2-Butene (c) Double bonds Butane 2-Methylpropane l l l d i b t ) (a) Length (d) Rings Cyclohexane Benzene (commonly called isobutane) (b) Branching ) Length Ethane Propane (a) Length Butane 2-Methylpropane ommonly called isobutane) (b) Branching (commonly called isobutane) (c) Double bonds 1-Butene 2-Butene
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4 ) S ttl i 2-methyl butane Pentane (a) Structural isomers Fig. 4-5d Cyclohexane Benzene (d) Rings Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen Many organic molecules, such as fats, have hydrocarbon components Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy Fat droplets (stained red) (a) Mammalian adipose cells (b) A fat molecule 100 μm
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5 Isomers Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties: Structural isomers have different covalent arrangements of their atoms Geometric isomers have the same covalent arrangements but differ in spatial rrangements arrangements Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other Pentane (a) Structural isomers 2-methyl butane (b) Geometric isomers cis isomer: The two Xs are on the same side.
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2011 for the course MAC AECH111 taught by Professor Cheresres during the Spring '11 term at McGill.

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04_Lecture_W2011 - Overview: Carbon: The Backbone of Life...

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