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08_Lecture_W2011

08_Lecture_W2011 - )01(23)45)6,5 2 34)5"6)0*1'$(4,1*7%$8...

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3 /"' 6%-8 45 01'(23 /(%1854(9%#,41 2 J."=*&A02$*(,) )0 #4, 0#'&8 %7 ,",$68 #$-"07%$1-#)%"0 2 @ (/%0,& 080#,1> 0'(4 -0 #4-# -;;$%:)1-#,& .8 /)D')& )" - #4,$1%0> )0 )0%/-#,& 7$%1 )#0 0'$$%'"&)"60 2 !" -" %;," 080#,1> ,",$68 -"& 1-##,$ (-" ., #$-"07,$$,& .,#9,," #4, 080#,1 -"& )#0 0'$$%'"&)"60 2 E$6-")010 -$, %;," 080#,10 The First Law of Thermodynamics 2 @((%$&)"6 #% #4, I(=)# '$/ &I #."=*&A02$*(,) > #4, ,",$68 %7 #4, '")5,$0, )0 (%"0#-"#F Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed 2 34, 7)$0# /-9 )0 -/0% (-//,& #4, ;$)"();/, %7 (%"0,$5-#)%" %7 ,",$68 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 2 G'$)"6 ,5,$8 ,",$68 #$-"07,$ %$ #$-"07%$1-#)%"> 0%1, ,",$68 )0 '"'0-./,> -"& )0 %7#," /%0# -0 4,-# 2 H,-# (-" ., '0,& %"/8 )7 #4,$, )0 - &)77,$,"(, )" #,1;,$-#'$, I (%/& 6,#0 4%#J> %#4,$9)0, 4,-# )0 K'0# &)00);-#,& -"& )# (-'0,0 )" )"($,-0, )" &)0%$&,$ 2 @((%$&)"6 #% #4, )",&2A '$/ &I #."=*&A02$*(,) F Every energy transfer or transformation Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy (disorder) of the universe
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4 8."*(,$' "2"=>0 C"$# 8L 5 C 5 L M D$E K(=)# '$/ &I #."=*&A02$*(,) D%E <",&2A '$/ &I #."=*&A02$*(,) 2 L)5)"6 (,//0 '"-5%)&-./8 (%"5,$# %$6-")B,& 7%$10 %7 ,",$68 #% 4,-# 2 =;%"#-",%'0 ;$%(,00,0 %(('$ 9)#4%'# ,",$68 )";'#M #4,8 (-" 4-;;," D')(</8 %$ 0/%9/8 2 N%$ - ;$%(,00 #% %(('$ 9)#4%'# ,",$68 )";'#> )# 1'0# )"($,-0, #4, ,"#$%;8 %7 #4, '")5,$0, Biological Order and Disorder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5 2 34, (4-"6, )" 7$,, ,",$68 I ¨ G J&'$ )"6- ;$%(,00 )0 $,/-#,& #% #4, (4-"6, )" ,"#4-/;8> %$ (4-"6, )" #%#-/ ,",$68 I ¨ H J> (4-"6, )" ,"#$%;8 I ¨ S J> -"& #,1;,$-#'$, )" P,/5)" (T) F ¨ G Q ¨ H – T ¨ S E"/8 ;$%(,00,0 9)#4 - ",6-#)5, ¨ G -$, 0;%"#-",%'0 =;%"#-",%'0 ;$%(,00,0 (-" ., 4-$",00,& #% ;,$7%$1 9%$< B('' 01'(23> D#%;,<,#3> %1= 0E?,<,;(,?9 2 N$,, ,",$68 )0 - 1,-0'$, %7 - 080#,1?0 )"0#-.)/)#8> )#0 #,"&,"(8 #% (4-"6, #% - 1%$, 0#-./, 0#-#, 2 G'$)"6 - 0;%"#-",%'0 (4-"6,> 7$,, ,",$68 &,($,-0,0 -"& #4, 0#-.)/)#8 %7 - 080#,1 )"($,-0,0 I R final 01-//,$ #4-" R initial J 2 AD')/).$)'1 )0 - 0#-#, %7 1-:)1'1 0#-.)/)#8 2 @ ;$%(,00 )0 0;%"#-",%'0 -"& (-" ;,$7%$1 9%$< %"/8 94," )# )0 1%5)"6 #%9-$& ,D')/).$)'1 !&=" I="" "2"=>0 D.(>."= G E N")) )#$%'" O="$#"= /&=G ,$-$,(#0 P2 $ )-&2#$2"&?) ,.$2>" J." I="" "2"=>0 &I #." )0)#"* A",="$)") D ¨ G Q RE J." )0)#"* %",&*") *&=" )#$%'" J." ="'"$)"A I="" "2"=>0 ,$2 %" .$=2"))"A #& A& /&=G N")) I="" "2"=>0 D'&/"= G E !&=" )#$%'" NG ( # D$E O=$F(#$#(&2$' *&#(&2 D%E 7(II?)(&2 D,E 8."*(,$' ="$,#(&2 N")) /&=G ,$-$,(#0 N)6'$, STUV Essential Cel Biology IW R-$/-"& =(),"(, XYUYJ
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6 B('' 01'(23 %1= F'#%;4<,89 2 34, (%"(,;# %7 7$,, ,",$68 (-" ., -;;/),& #% #4, (4,1)0#$8 %7 /)7,?0 ;$%(,00,0 2 @" "S"=>&2(, ="$,#(&2 ;$%(,,&0 9)#4 - ",# $,/,-0, %7 7$,, ,",$68 -"& )0 0;%"#-",%'0 2 @" "2A"=>&2(, ="$,#(&2 -.0%$.0 7$,, ,",$68 7$%1 )#0 0'$$%'"&)"60 -"& )0 "%"0;%"#-",%'0M )#0 ",# 7$,, ,",$68 )0 ;%0)#)5, ;"$,#$2#) 12"=>0 K="""2"=>0 @=&A?,#) :*&?2# &I "2"=>0 ="'"$)"A D ¨ G Q RE @=&>=")) &I #." ="$,#(&2 D$E 1S"=>&2(, ="$,#(&2T "2"=>0 ="'"$)"A @=&A?,#) :*&?2# &I "2"=>0 ;"$,#$2#) 12"=>0 ="U?(="A D ¨ G V RE D%E 12A"=>&2(, ="$,#(&2T "2"=>0 ="U?(="A
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08_Lecture_W2011 - )01(23)45)6,5 2 34)5"6)0*1'$(4,1*7%$8...

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