Chapter_16_Study_Notes

Chapter_16_Study_Notes - Chapter 16 174 Chapter 16...

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Chapter 16 Chapter 16 Motivation Chapter Outline I. The Concept of Motivation II. Foundations of Motivation A. Traditional Approach B. Human Relations Approach C. Human Resource Approach D. Contemporary Approach III. Content Perspectives on Motivation A. Hierarchy of Needs Theory B. ERG Theory C. Two-Factor Theory D. Acquired Needs Theory IV. Process Perspectives on Motivation A. Equity Theory B. Expectancy Theory C. Goal-Setting for Motivation V. Reinforcement Perspective on Motivation A. Reinforcement Tools B. Schedules of Reinforcement VI. Job Design for Motivation A. Job Simplification B. Job Rotation C. Job Enlargement D. Job Enrichment E. Job Characteristics Model VII. Motivational Ideas for Turbulent Times A. Empowering People to Meet Higher Needs B. Giving Meaning to Work 174
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Chapter 16 Annotated Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, students should be able to: 1. Define motivation and explain the difference between current approaches and traditional approaches to motivation. Motivation generally is defined as the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior. The study of motivation concerns is what prompts people to initiate action, what influences their choice of action, and why they persist in doing it over time. To the extent behavior is successful, the person is rewarded in the sense that the need is satisfied. In the traditional approach, economic rewards are provided to employees for high performance. The emphasis on pay evolved into the perception of workers as economic people, people who would work harder for higher pay. Three types of theories dominate contemporary approaches to employee motivation. The first is content theories, which stress the analysis of underlying human needs. Process theories are concerned with the thought processes that influence behavior. Reinforcement theories focus on employee learning of desired work behaviors. 2. Identify and describe content theories of motivation based on employee needs. Content theories emphasize the needs that motivate people. These needs translate into an internal drive that motivates an individual’s specific behaviors in an attempt to fulfill the needs. The organization’s reward system can be designed to meet and reinforce employees in directing energies and priorities toward attainment of organizational goals. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs and these needs exist in a hierarchical order. Once a need is satisfied, it declines in importance and the next higher need is activated, which is then satisfied, and the process continues up the hierarchy. Alderfer proposed the ERG theory, which identified three categories of needs: existence needs, which are the needs for physical well-being; relatedness needs, which pertain to the need for satisfactory relationships with others; and growth needs, which focus on the development of human potential and the desire for increased competence.
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