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Chapter 8 Categorical Logic Answers to Text Exercises Exercise 8-1 When we ask students to turn in exercises like these, we make them put parentheses or brackets around the subject and predicate terms—doing this helps students keep their answers straight, and it helps us read them. ▲1. All salamanders are lizards 2. Some lizards are not salamanders. 3. All lizards are reptiles. ▲4. All members of the suborder Ophidia are snakes. 5. All members of the suborder O. are snakes. 6. No burrowing snakes are poisonous snakes. ▲7. All alligators are reptiles. 8. All frogs are amphibians. 9. All places where there are snakes are places where there are frogs. ▲10. All places there are snakes are places there are frogs. 11. All times the frog population decreases are times the snake population decreases. 12. All people who arrived are cheerleaders. ▲13. All people who got raises are vice presidents. 14. All people who got seats are people who arrived early. ▲15. Some home movies are things that are as boring as dirt. ▲16. All people identical with Socrates are Greeks. 17. No people identical to the bank robber are people identical to Jane’s fiancé. 18. All automobiles built before 1950 are antiques. IM – 8 | 1

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▲19. All examples of salt are things that preserve meat. 20. Some examples of corn are not stuff that makes good popcorn. Exercise 8-2 ▲1. No students who wrote poor exams are students who were admitted to the program. 2. No students of mine are students who are failing. 3. No people who live in the dorms are people who can own cars. (If there is something about the addressee of this claim that makes it apply to him or her but not to all others, this one should be rephrased: “No people like you who live in the dorms are people who can own cars.”) ▲4. Some first basemen are right-handed people. 5. All times Joan sings are times people make faces. 6. All tests George fails are tests George takes. ▲7. All passers are people who made at least 50 percent. 8. All people who can be members are people over fifty. (Notice the difference between this and the claim “All members are over fifty.” The latter doesn’t capture the requirement that one be over fifty to be a member.) 9. All people who catch on are people who study. (Or, the converse of the obverse may seem more natural: “No people who fail to study are people who catch on.”) ▲10. Some prior days are days like this day. 11. No roofers are millionaires. 12. No parts of Michael Jackson’s face are parts that are original equipment. ▲13. Some holidays are holidays that fall on Saturday. 14. All gun owners are outlaws. 15. All things you have to lose are your chains. ▲16. All people who pass the course are people who pass this test. Or, no people who fail this test are people who pass the course.
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