Chapter 5 CARBOHYDRATES

Chapter 5 CARBOHYDRATES - bond, fig 5.4. *Common...

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Chapter 5 CARBOHYDRATES Sugars, Starches, etc. Summary *Structure of carbohydrates *Monosaccharides *Disaccharides *Polysaccharides *Functions of carbohydrates Carbohydrate Structure *Monomer – monosaccharide *Chemical formula: (CH 2 O) n *Carbon chains or rings with H’s, OH groups and a C=O or carbonyl group. Depending on the placement of the carbonyl group they may be aldoses or ketoses ., fig 5.1. *Most monosaccharides have 3, 5, or 6 carbons. *3 carbons = triose *5 carbons = pentose *6 carbons = ? *Different placement of the OH groups creates several different monosaccharides with the same chemical formula, fig 5.2. *Often monosaccharides form a carbon ring, an oxygen combining with another C in the chain. A new OH group is formed. *The OH group may be above or below the plane of the ring, fig 5.3. *Common monosaccharides *6 Carbon: Glucose, fructose, galactose *5 Carbon: Ribose and deoxyribose *Disaccharides – 2 sugars joined by a condensation reaction to form a glycosidic
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Unformatted text preview: bond, fig 5.4. *Common disaccharides *Sucrose *Lactose *Maltose *Polysaccharides consist of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds, fig 5.4. *Common polysaccharides, Table 5.1 *Starch *Glycogen *Cellulose *Chitin *Peptidoglycans *Chitin and peptidoglycans have N-containing residues, Table 5.1. 1 Functions of Carbohydrates *Energy production (glucose and fructose) and storage (glycogen and starch). *Cell identity markers carbohydrate chains attached to cell membrane proteins identify the type of cell. *Building blocks for other molecules such as, DNA and RNA, amino acids and lipids. *Structural - cellulose, chitin, peptidoglycans. Where did carbohydrates come from? *Miller/Urey experiment suggested that carbohydrates could have formed from prebiotic soup i.e. the hot oceans and atmospheric gases of early Earth. 2...
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Chapter 5 CARBOHYDRATES - bond, fig 5.4. *Common...

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