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Chapter 6 LIPIDS, MEMBRANES AND THE 1ST

Chapter 6 LIPIDS, MEMBRANES AND THE 1ST - Chapter 6 LIPIDS...

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Chapter 6 LIPIDS, MEMBRANES AND THE 1 ST CELLS Summary *Structure of lipids *Functions of lipids *Cell membrane lipids *How do solutes move across lipid membranes? *Passive transport – diffusion and osmosis *Active transport *Membrane proteins The 1 st Cell *Whatever came 1 st , proteins or RNA, the creation of a cell required a cell  membrane.   *A cell membrane: *Life began and still exists in a watery environment.  The inside and outside of  cells is largely water. *What would make a good barrier between these two environments? *Must be insoluble in water *Must be flexible Figure 6-1 Lipid Structure *Non-polar, hydrophobic compounds *Structure (lipids are not polymers), fig 6.2 *Hydrocarbons - carbon chains with H’s attached; few O 2 .  The numerous C-H  chains make lipids hydrophobic. *Isoprene      chains or… *Fatty acid      chains Figure 6-2 Triglycerides, fig 6.3 *Glycerol molecule – 3 carbon sugar alcohol *3 fatty acid chains *Linked to a glycerol molecule  via an ester  linkage or bond.   *How do you think this is formed? 1
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*Lipids are hydrophobic Figure 6-3a Steroids, fig 6.4 *Isoprene chains      form a 4 ring structure with an… *Isoprene tail. *Ex.  Cholesterol Phospholipid, fig 6.4 *Glycerol      molecule with… *2 fatty acid  or isoprene  chains  and… *A phosphate group  – polar or hydrophilic Figure 6-4b Functions of Lipids *Energy storage     *Pigments       *Vitamins and steroid hormones     *Cell signaling/identity     ***Form cell membranes Membrane Lipids *2 types:  phospholipids and cholesterol *Both have a hydrophobic  region (=non-polar tail) and a hydrophilic  region  (=polar head), fig 6.4.
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