Chapter 19 Analyzing and Engineering Genes

Chapter 19 Analyzing and Engineering Genes -...

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Chapter 19   ANALYZING AND ENGINEERING GENES Manipulation of genetic material Summary Tools for genetic engineering Host/vector systems and DNA libraries Genetic engineering experiment Identifying genes in organisms Analyzing DNA Biotechnology and you Genetic Engineering Involves: Identifying genes and Creating “new” genes or “designer genes ” through genetic  recombination . Molecular Biologists’ Tools Restriction endonucleases  – enzymes borrowed from nature. Cut DNA at specific sites  = restriction sites . Uses:  Cut DNA into smaller pieces for analysis and/or to construct recombinant DNA  molecules  (addition of a piece of foreign DNA to native DNA). 2 types:  type I  produces blunt end cuts, type II  produces staggered cuts with “sticky ends”. Restriction sites  have certain base sequences called palindromes, that are recognized by  specific endonucleases. DNA Ligase  – also borrowed from nature joins the ends of cut strands. Figure 19-2-1 Figure 19-2-2 Host/Vector Systems Use:  produce large amounts of recombinant DNA quickly, storage of DNA. Most common host  is E.coli bacteria but other bacteria and yeasts are also used.  All reproduce  quickly. Vectors : plasmids  and phages  carry recombinant DNA into host. Vectors - Plasmids Small circular pieces of DNA into which foreign DNA (10kb) can be inserted. “Engineered” plasmids usually contain a gene for antibiotic resistance and one for a metabolic 
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2011 for the course BIOL 1403 taught by Professor Dini during the Fall '09 term at Texas Tech.

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Chapter 19 Analyzing and Engineering Genes -...

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