Chapter 30 GREEN PLANTS

Chapter 30 GREEN PLANTS - Summary Evolution 4majorgroups...

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PIONEERS - THE FIRST TERRESTRIAL ORGANISMS. Chapter 30   GREEN PLANTS
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Summary Why are plants important? Evolution 4 major groups Life cycle – general Key lineages
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Why are Plants Important? 3 categories: Ecosystem services Fuels and fibers Other Assignment:  Read “Why do Biologists Study the  Green Plants?” pp 627-630 and write a summary on  the benefits of plants.  Due next class period.
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Evolution It started with green algae, confined to a watery  environment, ~ 570 mya. Land plants 1 st  appeared about 450 mya, preceding   land animals.
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Evolution Invasion of land presented some of the same  problems for plants as it did for animals: Prevention of desiccation   Soln:  development of a cuticle  and pores, then stomata . Need for systems to conduct food and water throughout plant Soln:  development of vascular systems . Protection of the embryo Soln:  development of seeds .
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4 Major Groups Based on similar characteristics and order of  evolution, fig 30.9. Non-vascular land plants , mosses, liverworts and hornworts Vascular plants Seedless vascular plants , club mosses, ferns and horsetails Gymnosperms  have “naked” seeds that protect embryo, conifers,  cycads and ginkgos.  Angiosperms  have enclosed seeds (fruits) and flowers.
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Figure 30-9 Green plants Land plants Vascular plants Seed plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms Flowers Seeds Vascular tissue Ability to live on land Chloroplasts containing chlorophyll a + b and β -carotene Green algae Nonvascular plants Seedless vascular plants Eukarya Archaea Bacteria (red algae) (ulvophytes) (coleochaetes) (stoneworts) Rhodophyta Ulvophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Charaphyceae Hepaticophyta Anthocerophyta Bryophyta (liverworts) (hornworts) (mosses) (lycophytes) (whisk ferns) (horsetails) (ferns) Lycophyta Psilotophyta Sphenophyta Pteridophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Other conifers Gnetophyta Pinophyta Anthophyta (cycads) (ginkgo) (redwoods et al.) (gnetophytes) (pines et al.) (angiosperms)
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Figure 30-16 FERTILIZATION Gametophyte ( n ; multicellular, haploid) MITOSIS MEIOSIS Sporophyte (2 n ; multicellular, diploid) Spores ( n ) Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) MITOSIS MITOSIS Gametes ( n ) Zygote (2 n ) LIFE CYCLE OF PLANTS
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