Chapter 36 PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION

Chapter 36 PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION - Plant Anatomy and...

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Plant Anatomy and Physiology
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Plant Form Root system Shoot system l Stems l Leaves l Plant Cells l Plant Tissues l Plant Growth
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Unlike animals, plants sit in one place but do remarkable things. Gather light and CO 2 and produce carbohydrates. Absorb water and ions from the soil and produce all of those other compounds that make up the organism – nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, etc. Plant anatomy (structure) is well suited for these functions.
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Plants have root systems to absorb water and ions and shoot systems to gather sunlight and CO 2 . l The two systems are connected, in most plants, by a vascular system.
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Types of roots, fig 36.2 Tap roots – vertical roots that may extend many meters into the earth. Lateral roots – horizontal roots that may extend well beyond the canopy of the plant.
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Figure 36-2 Sunlight CO 2 Transport of water, sugar, and nutrients through vascular tissue Water Nutrients (such as N, P, K) Root system Shoot system
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Root Modifications, fig 36.6 Prop roots – monocots, corn Buttress roots – Banyan trees Aerial roots – orchids Pneumatophores – facilitate oxygen uptake, cypress “knees” Contractile roots – at the end of bulbs Food storage roots – carrots
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Figure 36-6 Prop roots function in support. Snorkel roots function in gas exchange.
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Shoot anatomy, fig 36.3. Stems add support to aboveground portion of plant that conducts photosynthesis. Woody vs. herbaceous. Node area of leaf attachment; the space between two nodes is an internode . Leaves the photosynthetic organ. Buds l Apical buds at the top of the stem provide vertical growth and flowers. l Axillary buds at the nodes produce branches and flowers.
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Figure 36-3 Branch Water Nutrients (such as N, P, K) Root system Shoot system Stem Apical bud Axillary bud Node Leaves Node Internode Lateral roots Taproot Nutrients (such as N, P, K)
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Stem modifications, fig 36.10 Bulbs and corms Rhizomes and stolons Tubers Tendrils Cladophylls (cacti paddles) Thorns
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Figure 36-10 Rhizome Stolon Thorn Tuber Cactus stems store water. Tubers store carbohydrates. Thorns provide protection. Rhizomes produce new individuals at nodes belowground. Stolons produce new individuals at nodes aboveground.
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Leaf structure Petiole – leaf “stem” Blade – fleshy part of leaf; pinnate or palmate Simple leaves, compound leaves, double compound leaves.   Leaflets on compound leaves may be pinnate or palmate. Venation of leaves – web-like or parallel
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2011 for the course BIOL 1403 taught by Professor Dini during the Fall '09 term at Texas Tech.

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Chapter 36 PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION - Plant Anatomy and...

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