Chapter 44 Part1 Respiration

Chapter 44 Part1 Respiration - Chapter44,Part1:GasExchange...

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Chapter 44, Part 1:  Gas Exchange Fuel intake Summary - Respiration *What is respiration? *Gas pressures and gas exchange *Mammalian Respiration *Anatomy *Gas exchange *Gas transport in blood *Mechanics of breathing *Lung function  Respiration *Two processes linked by the circulatory system: *Internal or cellular respiration *External respiration  *Gases diffuse passively through air and water and moist or wet membranes. Air and Gas Pressures *Atmospheric pressure      = total pressure exerted by air on the Earth’s surface ~  760mmHg at sea level; decreases with altitude. *Partial pressure      = pressure (P) exerted by each gas contained in air or liquid.  *Air is 78% N 2 , 21% O 2  and 0.03% CO 2  + other gases. *Partial pressures:  PN 2  = 593, PO 2  = 160, and PCO 2  = 0.2 mmHg Gas Exchange *Rate (R) of diffusion of gas across a membrane depends on: *Diffusion constant (k, a property of the gas) 1
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*Area available for diffusion (A) *Concentration gradient (partial pressures) of gas across a membrane -  (P2-P1) *Distance the gas must diffuse (thickness of membrane) (D) ****R = k x A {(P2-P1)/D} Evolution of Respiratory Systems *Single celled organisms      –  *Invertebrates      –  *Fish    
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