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Chapter 54 ECOSYSTEMS - Chapter54ECOSYSTEMS Humanimpacts...

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Chapter 54  ECOSYSTEMS Human impacts Ecosystems *Definition:  all of the organisms that live in an area and their chemical/physical  environment. *4 components linked by the flow of energy, fig 54.1: Energy Flow in Ecosystems o Energy sources = trophic levels , fig 54.7 o Organisms that obtain energy from the same type of source occupy the  same trophic level. o Food chains      – connect different trophic levels and energy flows from the  producers upward. o Food webs      – most organisms eat more than one type of food and feed at  more than 1 trophic level, fig 54.8. Food Web o Energy flow from 1 trophic level to the next is inefficient, declining as  much as 90% from 1 level to the next, fig 54.9 *Examples:   o Food chains consist of no more than 3-4 trophic levels.  Limits: *Inefficiency of energy transfer (loss as heat energy) *Stability of the environment
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