Chapter_10spring2011

Chapter_10spring2011 - Chapter 10 Chapter Emotional...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Chapter Emotional Development Emotions Emotions Feeling, or affect, that occurs when a Feeling, person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or her important Darwin Facial expressions are innate Same in all cultures Display rules of emotions Differences in culture? Functionalist View of Emotion Functionalist Emotions are relational Function of the emotion Situation Emotions as consequences to life events Emotional Development Emotional Emotion Regulation-Effectively managing Emotion arousal to adapt and reach a goal arousal Childhood emotional regulation: External to internal resources • Who controls the emotions in infancy and in Who childhood? childhood? • pacifiers Cognitive strategies • Positive thinking, thought stopping Childhood Emotion Regulation Cont. Cont. Emotional arousal • Ability to recognize and contain/control emotions Choosing and managing contexts and Choosing relationships relationships • Avoiding negative emotions Coping with stress • Problem solving/ coping mechanisms Emotional Competence Emotional Social skills needed: Awareness of emotions Detecting others’ emotions Using vocabulary words of emotion appropriately Empathy and sympathy appropriately Inner emotional states vs. outer emotions Coping with negative emotions Awareness of importance of emotion expression Believing you can control your emotions Development of Emotion Development Infancy 6 months: Primary emotions Self-conscious emotions 1.5 years Surprise, interest, joy, anger, sadness, fear and Surprise, disgust disgust Empathy, jealousy, embarrassment 2.5 years Pride, shame, and guilt (evaluation of behavior) Why do Babies Cry? Why Communication! 3 types: Basic-hunger Anger Pain Responding to cries Bonding? Spoiling? Infancy Emotion Infancy Smiling Fear 6 months Stranger anxiety Social Referencing Reflexive (1 mo) Social (2-3 mo) Better as they get older Regulation and Coping Caregivers Self-soothe Communication ( 2 years) Early Childhood Early Self-conscious emotions Pride, Shame, Guilt Girls: Higher shame and pride Parents’ responses to behavior? Early Childhood Early Communicating emotions Words describing emotions (2-4yrs) Emotions elicited by events Reflections on emotions (4-5yrs) Causes and consequences Causes Consequences on relationships? What happens when they don’t have the What skills? skills? Middle and Late Childhood Middle Developmental Changes Understanding of emotions Suppress negative emotions Redirecting feelings/emotions “Big picture” of emotional reactions Empathy Coping Appraisal of situations and control Adolescence Adolescence Extreme emotions Hormones? Environmental factors? Depression vulnerability Female Emotional Problems: Depression Emotional Childhood: Aggression School difficulty Anxiety Isolation Social difficulty Diagnostic problems? Emotional Problems: Depression Emotional What causes depression in children? Bowlby- insecure attachment leads to Bowlbynegative schema negative Beck-negative schemas-negative thoughtsnegative experiences Seligman-learned helplessness Parents depression Marital conflict Emotional Problems: Depression Emotional Adolescence Sex differences: Girls ruminate Negative self-images Elevated sexual harassment and abuse Puberty Depressed parents Marital conflict Financial difficulty Peer relationships Emotional Problems: Suicide Emotional 13-19: 3rd leading cause of death 17% consider suicide Influencing factors: Genetics Sex differences Drug use Social relationships Depression Emotional Problems: Stress and Coping Coping Experiencing stress Cognitive appraisal: Primary appraisal-individuals interpret whether an Primary event involves harm or loss, threat of danger, or a harm challenge to overcome challenge Secondary appraisal-evaluate resources and coping Harm and threat high & challenge and resources Harm low = high stress low Harm and threat are low & challenge and Harm resources are high = stress is low resources Activity Activity Types of emotions Situations emotions are expressed Coping mechanisms Temperament Temperament Behavioral style and characteristic way of Behavioral responding responding Biological and emotional component of Biological personality personality Chess and Thomas: Easy child: positive mood, establishes regular Easy routines, adjusts to change routines, Difficult child: cries frequently, irregular routines, slow Difficult to accept change to Slow-to-warm-up child: low activity, negative, low Slow-to-warm-up intensity mood intensity Temperament Temperament Kagan: Shy and timid Social, extrovert Inhibition to the unfamiliar Extremely inhibited Extremely uninhibited Intermediate Temperament Temperament Rothbart and Bates: Extraversion/surgency-positive anticipation, Extraversion/surgency-positive impulsivity, activity level and sensation seeking seeking Negative affectivity- irritability and fear Effortful control-Attentional focusing and Effortful shifting, inhibitory control, perceptual sensitivity, ad low-intensity pleasure sensitivity, Attachment Attachment Close emotional bond between two people Freud- oral satisfaction Harlow- contact comfort http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KlfOecrr6kI Erikson- physical comfort and sensitive Erikson- care care Bowbly-responsiveness of caregiver Attachment Attachment Bowbly phases of attachment: Birth-2 months: 2-7 months: Attachment to primary caregiver 7-24 months: Instinctively attach to humans Specific attachment; actively seek caregiver 24 months-on: Awareness of others and how their behaviors affect Awareness them them Attachment Attachment Mary Ainsworth- Strange situation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=36GI_1PBQpM Securely attached-Caregiver as secure base, explore, Securely cry little but adjust and happy for caregiver to return cry Insecure avoidant- avoids caregiver, not upset when Insecure caregiver leaves, ignores when caregiver returns caregiver Insecure resistant- cling to caregiver, cry when they Insecure leave, resist them when caregiver returns leave, Insecure disorganized-disorganized and disoriented ...
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