Chapter_14.Spring2011 - Chapter 14 Chapter Families...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14 Chapter Families Parenting Parenting True or False Having a baby will save a failing marriage Parenting requires no training (instinct) Mothers are better parents than fathers Children will take care of their parents in old Children age age Others? Parenting Parenting 1st year Caretaking 2-3 years Physical manipulation (changing environment) Redirection Parenting Parenting Older Reasoning Less affection Establishing routines Consequences Independence Parenting Styles Parenting 1. Authoritarian parenting-restrictive, punitive, firm 1. limits limits Unhappy, fearful, and anxious (comparisons), poor Unhappy, communication communication 2. Authoritative- independent but places some 2. limitations limitations Cheerful, self-controlled, self-reliant, acievement Cheerful, oriented, friendly, cooperate, and positive coping oriented, Parenting Styles Parenting 3. Neglectful- uninvolved Low self-esteem, immature, alienated from Low family, truancy, delinquency family, 4. Indulgent/Permissive-highly involved but 4. place few demands place Impulsive, domineering, egocentric, Impulsive, noncompliant, poor peer relations noncompliant, Parenting Parenting Authoritative Why is it so effective? Control vs autonomy Self-Expression Social relationships More receptive to influence Parenting Parenting Ethnic differences: Asian families-authoritarian Asian involvement/concern? Hispanic families-authoritarian Hispanic respect/obedience? African American-authoritarian (spanking) Remove from immediate danger? Punishment Punishment Spanking? Advantages: Immediate compliance Disadvantages: Aggression Behavior problems Fear Avoidance Abuse Why these disadvantages? Punishment Punishment Are there better ways to discipline? Time-out Positive Reinforcement Overcorrection Response-cost Differential attention Key aspects: Consistency Immediate consequences Understood rules/expectations Maltreatment Maltreatment Physical Abuse Child Neglect Physical/Medical Educational Emotional Sexual Abuse Emotional Abuse Maltreatment Maltreatment Contributing factors: Types of discipline (aggression) Poor resources/coping Abuse in the family Media/cultural influences 1/3 of abused parents also abuse Maltreatment Maltreatment Consequences: Poor emotion regulation Attachment problems Peer relationship difficulty Problems adapting in school Aggression Maltreatment Maltreatment Long term Consequences: Anxiety Depression Suicide attempts Conduct disorder/delinquency Romantic relationship problems Violence Substance abuse Maltreatment Maltreatment Prevention? Treatment? Families and Adolescents Families Attachment Secure-autonomous Connectedness to parents Competent peer relationships Positive close relationships outside of family Insecure Distance themselves from each other Lessens parental influence Violent and aggressive behavior Attachment-seeking behavior Angry feelings Conflict Parent-adolescent conflict Parent-adolescent Causes of conflict: Biological changes during puberty Cognitive changes (idealism and logical reasoning) Social changes (identity and independence) Maturational changes in parents Expectations violations Can conflict be good? Can Or is it always bad? Siblings Siblings Emotional quality of the relationship Positive and negative Familiarity and intimacy Support or tease Variation Variation Warm/affectionate Irritating/annoying Siblings Siblings Birth Order: First born: First Later born: Later more adult-oriented, helpful, conforming, and selfcontrolled. rebellious, liberal, and agreeable Why? Why? Birth Order cont… Birth Differences in parent-child interactions How is the first child’s interactions How different? different? Parents have: Higher expectations more pressure to succeed Birth Order cont… Birth Only child: Achievement-oriented Desirable personality traits Myths? Changing Family Changing Positive and negative effects on both parents Positive working working Negative outcomes • Poor work conditions Poor • Negative work spill over Negative Extracurricular activities- positive outcomes Relation between work and home Effects of Divorce Effects Children of divorced parents: Poorer adjustment Poorer Academic problems Externalizing problems Less socially responsible Less competent intimate relationships Drop out of school Sexually active earlier Use drugs Antisocial peers Low self-esteem Effects of Divorce Effects What are some other reasons for these What effects? effects? Just divorce? Effects of Divorce Effects Benefits of divorce? Reduce stress in family Reduce conflict Consequences on resources Reduced income Inept parenting Increased conflict Effects of Divorce Effects Improve divorce process Authoritative parenting Improved relationship Secure attachment Step-families Step-families History of parent-child relationships Step-families vs. Intact conflictual families 75% close relationship with step-parent Benefits of step-parents Adjustment problems? Gay/Lesbian Parenting Gay/Lesbian Few differences between children in Few heterosexual and homosexual households heterosexual Similar popularity with peers No differences in adjustment or mental health Mostly heterosexual children Myths? ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2011 for the course PSY 2301 taught by Professor T during the Spring '11 term at Texas Tech.

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