Planes, Axes, Muscle Actions, and Joint Motions

Planes, Axes, Muscle Actions, and Joint Motions - Planes,...

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Planes, Axes, Muscle Actions, and Joint
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Skeleton Axial Skeleton Head Neck Trunk Appendicular Skeleton Upper extremities Lower extremities
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Reference Positions Anatomical Position Standard reference point Palms face front Fundamental Position Similar to anatomical position Arms more relaxed Palms face inward
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Relative Position Medial – toward midline of the body Lateral – away from midline of the body Proximal – toward point of attachment Distal – away from point of attachment Superior – toward the top of the head Inferior – toward the bottom of the feet
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Relative Position Anterior – front, ventral Posterior – back, dorsal Ipsilateral – on the same side Contralateral – on opposite sides Relative Angle - Included angle between two segments
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Relative Position
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Plane Flat, two-dimensional surface Cardinal Planes Planes positioned at right angles and
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Planes, Axes, Muscle Actions, and Joint Motions - Planes,...

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