Chem 177 Ch.1 Outline

Chem 177 Ch.1 Outline - Chapter 1: Introduction: Matter and...

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Chapter 1: Introduction: Matter and Measurement Chem 177 Page 1 Chemistry – study of matter (materials) and its changes. Everything in the Universe is either matter or Energy . Matter – occupies space – physical “material” of universe [ has mass ] Energy ability to do work or transfer heat 1.1 The Study of Chemistry Matter consists of “particles” Atom – “building blocks” of matter (the letters of a language) Example: H, O, C, Mg Materials of atoms of only one type make up elements Atoms of more than 1 element CAN make up molecules. (The words of a language.) Example: H 2 O, CO, CO 2 Atoms in molecules are in FIXED ratios. 1.2 Classifications of matter: Based on - Physical or chemical (composition) states of matter. In terms of physical states , a matter can be a …. Gas – molecules or atoms very far apart, moving rapidly, the container entirely filled with the species (3-D) Liquid – molecules or atoms in close proximity, moving, take on shape of vessel. Solid – fixed volume and shape. molecules/atoms – rigid. In terms of chemical classification , a matter can be …. . A) Pure substances: Element – made of a single type of atom H 2 , O 2 , Al, etc. [Note: Chemical symbols used as shorthand for chemical name] Compound – made of more than 1 type of atom in fixed proportions. Example, H 2 O (water), H 2 O 2 (hydrogen peroxide), CH 4 (natural gas) With regard to compounds, you need to know two laws that describes the compound formation. They are ………….
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Chapter 1: Introduction: Matter and Measurement Chem 177 Page 2 1) Law of constant composition or law of definite proportions: for a given compound, the composition is always the same; the ratio of the constituent atoms is constant. For example: natural gas always has the composition: 4 hydrogen atoms for every 1 carbon atom. 2) Law of multiple proportions: different compounds may be formed from the same constituent elements in different, but fixed, compositions or ratios. For example: water and hydrogen peroxide consist of hydrogen and oxygen. In water the ratio of H atoms to O atoms is 2:1, for hydrogen peroxide, the ratio is 1:1. All water has the same H to O ratio; all hydrogen peroxide has the same ratio of the H to O. Water and hydrogen peroxide have different properties because they are different compounds. B) Mixtures
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course CHEM 177 taught by Professor Greenbowe during the Fall '06 term at Iowa State.

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Chem 177 Ch.1 Outline - Chapter 1: Introduction: Matter and...

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