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Developmental Psychology Class Notes 3

Developmental Psychology Class Notes 3 - Developmental...

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Developmental Psychology Class Notes Chapter 5 + 6 Physical Development Infant Rapid growth within the first two years of life. A lot of reflexes and locomotors development. Gains about an oz per day and inch per month. When weight gain is higher than height gain rate there is good possibility of obesity. Reflexes are unlearned, preprogramed reactions. Some reflexes continue throughout life. Some reflexes are seen prenatally. (stepping reflex, grasping, swallowing). Survival have clear adaptive value such as breathing, eye blink, sucking reflex. Primitive tend to disappear within 4 months. Brain takes over control of body. Not clearly useful. Thought to be tied to evolutionary basis. Measuring if primitive appears and disappears within the estimated 4 months. Used diagnostically. Physical growth is ordinal. Cephalocaudal – head to tail development. Proximodistal – trunk to extremities development. Gross – using your major muscle groups. Fine – using minor muscles to perform delicate skills. Orthogenetic – more precision to movements by learning to recognize distance. Developmental Norm – indicating an average age of mastery. Largely dependent on a sample of study. A couple months behind the norm is not a big deal. Crawling – 7 months. Starts with crawling then by 10 months progress “creeping.” (Today a lot of babies go from sitting to walking) Walking – 12 months. For the next few months they will alternate between crawling and walking. Usually mastered by 14 months. Manipulating Objects – grasping ends after about 2-4 months, they then have pretty poor grasping ability and movements are not precise. At 6 months they are able to use pincer grabbing. Child from 2 – puberty. There is a slow and steady rate of development. They tend to engage in more physical activity and it helps cognitive development and relationships such as social interaction. They learn social cues. 30-40% of American children are over-weight. Obesity affects ethnic children more. Adolescence Dramatic physical changes where people take on more adult like appearance. Puberty is the processes that leads to physical changes. Ends with sexual development. Initiated by excess amount of hormones.
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Girls average age of puberty and growth spurt: 12-12 ½. Boys average age of puberty and growth spurt: 13-14 Girls gain fat because they are sexually able to reproduce. Period around 12. Triggered by increase in estrogen and progesterone. Boys gain muscle and develop broader shoulders. Triggered by increase in testosterone and androgen. Some distancing occurs from parents. Increases in rates of depression especially in girls at 16. Genes can predispose people to begin puberty earlier or later. Hormones are responsible for the initiation though.
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Developmental Psychology Class Notes 3 - Developmental...

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