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DevPsychTest3Notes (2) - Read pg 190-193(ADHD Social...

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Read pg 190-193 (ADHD) Social Cognition and Moral Development Social Cognition – adopt other person’s perspective. Theory of Mind – people have mental states that guide their behavior. Develops early in life. Mind-reading – ability to predict what someone will do or say. False-belief task – people can belief false information (passing this task proves that we have theory of mind). Autism – struggle with theory of mind tasks and false belief test even though they may have normal intelligence. Early Signs of Theory of Mind (deficient in children with autism) Joint attention – (9 months) can look at object and share perceptual experience with others. Pretend Play – (as early as 1 year) they understand there is a difference between make- believe and reality. Imitation – an ability to mentally represent an action. Emotional Understanding – early sensitivity to feelings of others. Impact of Social Influence – if parents consider the thoughts of children then they are more likely to develop theory of mind easier. Parent can help by asking children to imagine how they feel. Relationship skills and interactions are very important. Development of theory of mind does not occur in isolation. Siblings are usually first to engage with. Role-taking advancement. Mirror Neurons – activated when we observe and perform an action. Do not need to perform the action for neurons to be activated. May help facilitate imitation. Role-Taking Skills – the ability to take someone else’s perspective. Moral development depends on theory of mind. (more specifically role-taking skills) Empathy – vicariously experiencing someone else’s feelings. Egocentrism – as it declines a greater increase in role-taking skills. Multiple Perspectives – we can retain our perspective as well as others. Moral Reasoning – thinking process underlying moral behavior, ties in with our ability to experience pride and shame. Affective: feelings and emotional compensate of morality. Moral affect vicariously through others. Motivated to avoid negative feelings and actions. Behavioral: the actual actions. Do we do the right thing or the wrong thing? Cognitive: the thoughts about right and wrong. How we conceptualize and decide what decisions to make. Cognitive Developmental Theory – Universal. (Piaget) how people view rules change over time. It is how we decide to act. Premoral – preschool years, these children are without moral. Very little understanding of rules. (probably not very true, they are capable of distinguishing between right and wrong based on intentions.) Heteronomous : 6-10 beginning to take rules seriously. See the authority figure as all knowing. (children do not actually see all rules as sacred, they view in terms of consequences.) Children actually view on consequences and intention.
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