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Unformatted text preview: Self and Personality Temperament – more complex than personality. Dimension of infant personality. Early biologically and genetically based tendencies to respond in predictable ways to stimuli. (motor and emotion and self-regulation) (ex: irritability, response to arousal, ability to regulate, ability to be soothed) Seen in infancy, thought to be building blocks of personality. Largely characterized as reactivity. High levels of motor behavior. Takes less to set them off. Personality and temperament are linked but not the same. 3 categories: 1. easy temperament (40% even tempered, gen happy, open to new experiences and people, can tolerate distress by self-soothing) 2. difficult temperament (10% irritable, irregular habits, slow to adapt to change, tantrums, more of a negative emotionality) 3. slow to warm-up temperament (15% more inactive than difficult, slightly moody, slow to adapt but they will adapt, negative reactions but less intense than difficult) 35% have a combination of easy and difficult temperament. (no definitive to characterize.) Reciprocal influence between temperament of child and reactions of parents. Parents must learn to interpret the child’s cues. Must be sensitive in response to irritability. Parenting does not decide temperament. It is innate. Rothbart et al. (emotional control and regulation in certain 1. Surgency/extraversion – immerge in infancy, actively engaging in new things. Happily doing so. 2. Negative emotionality or affectivity – develops a little later, expressing anger, sadness, etc. 3. Orienting/regulation – a child can control themselves. (not throwing a temper tantrum) Does not emerge until early childhood. Personality – organized attribute, motives, behaviors. 1. Dispositional Traits – what make you an individual. Can change but than solidifies. 2. Characteristic Adaptations – how people adapt to environment and roles they assume. 3. Narrative Identities – unique and integrative stories that we construct about our past, present and future. Categories infants with temperament then as they age by personality. Difficult temperament usually develop into impulsive personalities. Trait Theory – measuring different traits or set of traits. Measure individual differences. Personality = traits that are enduring. “Big Five” – openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism Not a stage theory, it is universal, capture differences in cultures, genetic basis Social Learning Theory – personality is a set of behavioral tendencies in social situations. Context plays a big role, emphasis on reward and punishment. Personality = based on environmental situations. People change as environment changes. Not universal or stable traits....
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at Temple.
- Fall '11