Final Exam Study Guide
Be able to identify and
explain the significance
of the following:
(1968)- a series of surprise attacks by the Vietcong (rebel forces sponsored
by North Vietnam) and North Vietnamese forces, on scores of cities, towns, and hamlets
throughout South Vietnam. It was considered to be a turning point in the Vietnam War.
Even though the offensive was a military failure, for the North Vietnamese Communists
and Vietcong (VC), pointing to their retreat and staggering casualties, it was a political
and psychological victory for them because it dramatically contradicted optimistic claims
by the U.S. gov’t that the war was all but over. It demonstrated the resolve of the
Vietcong and the tenuous control South Vietnam had over its own territory and helped
unite those at home in their dissenting opinions of the war.
plan to discourage the South Vietnamese to take more responsibility for
fighting the war. It was hoped that this policy would eventually enable the United States
to withdraw gradually all their soldiers from Vietnam. To increase the size of the ARVN,
a mobilization law was passed that called up into the army all men in South Vietnam
aged between seventeen and forty-three. Reality was four bloody years of war, 20, 000
more American deaths, and a peace that was “neither honorable nor lasting” according to
U.S. war in Cambodia
- In order to protect Vietnamization process, and to be assured of
friendly gov’t on Vietnam’s border, and to demonstrate his resolve, in 1970, Nixon
ordered for U.S. troops to invade N. Vietnamese bases in Cambodia. Protests exploded
all over the country, and especially on college campus, b/c the president promised to end
the war but had expanded.
Nixon blamed student who were killed at Kent State Univ.,
and Jackson State College, that if they had not been striking, the National Guardsmen
wouldn’t have shot them. Nixon felt under siege by protests, Democratic Congress,
hostile press and by the gov’t.
--the political life would be based in several root principles:
that decision-making of basic social consequences be carried on by public groups; that
politics can be seen positively as they are collectively creating an acceptable pattern of
social relations; that politics has the function of bringing out of isolation and into
community. Engaged citizenry forging their own collective fate, without domineering
leaders of cumbersome bureaucracies, ruled the New Left, until the end of the 1960s.