Comm 319 Final Review - Comm 319 Final Review 1. What is...

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Comm 319 Final Review 1. What is Rhetoric? - Aristotle, 4 th century BC, Athens - Rhetoric = The study of what is persuasive - Emphasizes social truths : - subjective - evaluative - changes over time - Emphasizes reasoning and justification : - avoids violence or coercion - promotes freedom of choice - Depicts the human condition - 7 P’s: - Public: addressed to others, communal issues - Propositional : coherent, structured claim; justified in request - Purposive : goal-oriented - Problem solving : response to a need, presentation of options - Pragmatic : produces actions, practical outcomes - Poetic : displays qualities of ritual, aesthetics; dramatic narratives - Powerful : prompts participation, invites identification, alters perception 2. Explain Aristotle’s 3 proofs of an argument. - Pathos : emotion, motivates - Ethos : credibility, trust - Logos : logic; evidence/support, reasoning; organization 3. How do Aristotle’s canons guide speech preparation and delivery? - 5 Canons: 1. Invention – topic of significance; consider audience and own experience 2. Disposition – organization; pick thesis and state it clearly, main points to support… 3. Style – language – 4. Memory 5. Delivery 4. Why and how do stories, statistics, testimony, visuals, and analogies work as evidence to support our points? What are some of the strengths and weaknesses of each? - stories : contribute to ethos; demonstrates goodwill and expertise. Psychological appeal strengths: creates identification and involves the audience with the problem. Touches the unconscious mind. Powerful to influence others (Jesus)
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weakness: they are single instances that may be atypical and unrepresentative. Weak if undetailed or contradict audience’s experiences. - statistics: a numerical or quantitative measure of scope or frequency of occurrence. Used to convey how often something happens or the size and scope of a problem. Rational appeal Strengths: our society respects hard cold facts. Logos. Objectivity and precesion lead people to think stats factual and true. Translation. Weaknesses: lists of numbers are hard understand and remember. Numbers can be used to distort and misrepresent (what counts as an instance of what is being measured? How was the whole population sampled to obtain these data?) - Testimony: Authority evidence = ethos. A strong way to bolster a claim and enhance the credibility of the rhetor. Rational appeal Strongest when: we know the credentials of the authority, the explicit relationship between the expertise of the authority and the subject, and details about the data used by the authority to make interpretations. Weakness: when we don’t know details about credentials, ambiguous data used in conclusions. Misuse/distortion. (ex- celeb endorsements) - Visuals: presenting the same material through two sensory channels. Presenting statistics.
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Comm 319 Final Review - Comm 319 Final Review 1. What is...

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