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Unformatted text preview: QUIZ 1 (CHAPTER 14)  SOLUTIONS
MATH 252 – FALL 2008 – KUNIYUKI
MULTIPLIED BY 0.84
SCORED OUT OF 125 POINTS 105% POSSIBLE Clearly mark vectors, as we have done in class. I will use boldface, but you don’t!
When describing vectors, you may use either
or “ i j k ” notation.
Assume we are in our usual 2 and 3dimensional Cartesian coordinate systems.
Give exact answers, unless otherwise specified. () () 1) Consider the points P 1, 3 and Q 5, 8 . Find the vector in V2 that has the same
direction as the vector [corresponding to] PQ and has length 100. (8 points)
Let a be the vector corresponding to PQ :
a = 5 1, 8 3
= 4, 5 Find the magnitude (or length) of a: a= 4, 5 = ( 4) + (5)
2 2 = 41 Find the unit vector u in V2 that has the same direction as a:
u= 4, 5
a
=
=
a
41 4
41 , 5
41 or 4 41 5 41
,
41
41 Multiply u by 100 to get the desired vector of magnitude 100:
100u = 100 4 41 5 41
,
=
41
41 400 41 500 41
,
41
41 ( ) 2) Write an equation (in x, y, and z) of the sphere with center 0, 4, 2 that is
tangent to the xyplane in our usual threedimensional xyzcoordinate system.
(4 points)
2 , so it is two units below the xyplane, and The center of the sphere has zcoordinate
the radius of the sphere is 2. ( We use the template: x x0 ) +(y
2 y0 ) + (z
2 z0 ) 2 = r2 . ( x 0 ) + ( y 4 ) + ( z ( 2 )) = ( 2 )
x + ( y 4) + ( z + 2) = 4
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3) Assume that a, b, and c are nonzero vectors in V3 . ( ) Prove: compc a + b = compc a + compc b .
You may use the comp formula and the basic dot product properties listed in the
book without proof. (Writing a = a1 , a2 , a3 and so forth will not help here.)
(6 points) ( ) compc a + b = (a + b) • c
c = a•c + b•c
c = a•c b•c
+
c
c = compca + compcb 4) Write the CauchySchwarz Inequality. Let a and b be vectors in Vn , where
n is some natural number. (4 points)
a•b a b 5) You do not have to show work for this problem. There are many possible
answers for part a) and for part b). (6 points total; 3 points each)
a) Assuming v = 2, 3 in V2 , find a nonzero vector w in V2 that is
orthogonal to v.
Find a nonzero vector w in V2 such that v • w = 0 .
Sample answer: 3, 2 . b) Assuming a = 3i + 4 j + 5k in V3 , find a nonzero vector b in V3 such that
a b = 0.
Find a nonzero vector b in V3 that is parallel to a.
We can choose any nonzero scalar multiple of a, even a itself.
Sample answer: a, or 3, 4, 5 . 6) Let a, b, and c be vectors in V3 . (4 points total; 2 points each)
a) (a b) • c is … (Box in one:)
a scalar a vector neither, or undefined a b is a vector in V3 , and the dot product of a vector in V3 and a vector ( ) in V3 is a scalar. We call a b • c a triple scalar product (“TSP”). b) a (b • c) is … (Box in one:)
a scalar a vector neither, or undefined b • c is a scalar, and the cross product of a vector and a scalar is
undefined. ( ) ( ) 7) The line l passes through the points P 4, 1, 3 and Q 6, 1, 8 .
(10 points total)
a) Find parametric equations for l.
First, find a direction vector for l : PQ = 6 4, 1 1, 8 ( 3) = 2, 2, 5
Use this direction vector together with one of the given points (say P) to obtain
parametric equations for l : x = 4 + 2t
y = 1 2t , t in R
z = 3 5t b) Find symmetric equations for l.
Solve the three equations in a) for t and equate the resulting expressions for t. x 4 y 1 z+3
=
=
2
2
5 8) Consider the following two lines: l1 : x = 13 + 4t
y = 5 + 2t
z = 2 + 3t and l2 : x = 5 3u
y= 9+ u
z = 8 6u (t , u R ) (31 points total)
a) Find the point of intersection between the two lines.
Equate the expressions for corresponding coordinates, and solve the system: 13 + 4t = 5 3u
5 + 2t = 9 + u
2 + 3t = 8 6u ( Eq.1)
( Eq.2)
( Eq.3) 4t + 3u = 18
2t u = 14 3t + 6u = 6 Solve the subsystem with, say, the first two equations: ( Eq.1)
( Eq.2) 4t + 3u = 18
2t u = 14 ( ) The unique solution is: t = 6, u = 2 . ( ) Verify that t = 6, u = 2 satisfies Eq.3: 3t + 6u = 6, ( 6) + 6 ( 2) = 3 (t = 6, u = 2 ) 6 6= 6 (Checks out.) Therefore, the two given lines intersect at the point for which
t = 6, u = 2 . ( ) Find the intersection point:
We will substitute u = 2 into the equations for l2 .
(Alternately, we could substitute t = 6 into the equations for l1 .) ()
9 + ( 2) =
8 6 ( 2) = x= 5
y=
z= 3 2 = 11 The intersection point is: ( 7
20 ) 11, 7, 20 . b) Find either one of the two supplementary angles between the given lines.
Reminder: l1 : x = 13 + 4t
y = 5 + 2t
z = 2 + 3t x = 5 3u
y= 9+ u
z = 8 6u l2 : and (t , u R ) Round off your answer to the nearest tenth of a degree.
A direction vector for l1 is given by a = 4, 2, 3 .
A direction vector for l2 is given by b = 3, 1, 6 . Ingredients for our angle formula:
a • b = 4, 2, 3 • 3, 1, 6 ( )( 3) + ( 2)(1) + (3)( 6) ( ) =4 Maybe easier to skip. = 12 + 2 18
= 28 a= 4, 2, 3 b= ( 4) + ( 2) + (3)
2 = 3, 1, 6 = 2 2 = 29 ( 3) + (1) + ( 6)
2 2 2 = 46 Find an angle:
= cos 1 = cos 1 a•b
ab
28
29 46 Note: = cos 1 28
1334 cos 1 ( 0.76662 ) 140.1° Note 1: Because either of the direction vectors we found could be reversed, the
supplementary angle, about 39.9 , would also have been acceptable.
Note 2: Some books require that arccosine values be written in radians, but we
won’t worry about that. c) At what point does the line l2 intersect the yzplane? Reminder: x = 5 3u
y= 9+ u
z = 8 6u l2 : (u R ) We have to find the point on l2 where x = 0 .
Using the parametric equations for l2 :
Solve for t :
x=0
5 3u = 0
u= 5
3 We then have: x=0
5
5
=
=9
3
3 y = 9+u = 9+ 5
= 8 + 10 = 2
3 z = 8 6u = 8 6 The desired point is: ( )( 9) Consider the points P 0, 4, 2 , Q 0, 32
3 32
, 2 , or
3 ) 2
0, 10 , 2
3 ( ) 1, 7, 3 , and R 2, 1, 1 . Distance is measured in meters. (20 points total)
a) Find an equation (in x, y, and z) of the plane containing the three points
P, Q, and R.
PQ =
= 1 0, 7 4, 3 2
1, 3, 5 PR = 2 0, 1 4, 1 2
= 2, 3, 3 Since PQ and PR are nonparallel vectors, we can obtain a normal vector n for
the desired plane as follows:
PQ PR = 1, 3, 5 i
=1
2 j
3
3 3 5 2, 3, 3 =
= ( 3 3 k
5
3
1 i 5 2 3 j+ (3 ( 10)) j ) 9 15 i + 1
2 3
3 k (3 6) k = 24i 13j 3k
= 24, 13, 3 For simplicity, we can use the opposite vector as our n: n = 24, 13, 3 . ( ) Let’s use n = 24, 13, 3 as our normal and P 0, 4, 2 , say, as our point.
Standard form for an equation of the plane: ( )( 24 x + 13 y 4 + 3 z ) 2 =0 General form for an equation of the plane: 24 x + 13 y + 3z 58 = 0 b) Find the area of triangle PQR, the triangle that has the three given points
(P, Q, and R) as its vertices. You may refer to your work in part a).
Round off your answer to the nearest tenth of a square meter.
1
PQ PR
2
2
1
=
24 +
2
1
=
754
2 Area= ( ) ( 13) + ( 3)
2 13.7 square meters 2 10) ( ) Find the distance between the point 5, 2, 4 and the plane 3x y + 2 z + 7 = 0 . Distance is measured in meters. Round off your answer
to the nearest tenth of a meter. (8 points)
Method 1 ax0 + by0 + cz0 + d
a 2 + b2 + c 2 ( ) 1( 2) + 2 ( 4) + 7
(3) + ( 1) + ( 2) 35 = 2 2 2 12 = 14
3.2 meters Method 2
Find a point on the given plane by, say, plugging in x = 0 and z = 0 into
the equation of the plane and getting 0, 7, 0 . ( ) ( ) ( ) Let the p vector connect this point, 0, 7, 0 , to the given point, 5, 2, 4 :
p = 5 0, 2 7, 4 0
= 5, 5, 4 A normal vector for the given plane is n = 3, 1, 2 .
The desired distance is: compnp =
=
=
= p•n
n
5, 5, 4 • 3, 1, 2
3, 1, 2
15 + 5 8 (3) + ( 1) + ( 2)
2 2 2 12
14
3.2 meters Note: The formula for the distance between a point and a line in the plane is
inappropriate, because there is no guarantee that your line contains the point on
the plane closest to the given point. 11) Matching. (12 points total)
Fill in each blank below with one of the following letters (AF):
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F. An Ellipsoid
A Hyperboloid of One Sheet
A Hyperboloid of Two Sheets
A Cone
An Elliptic Paraboloid
A Hyperbolic Paraboloid I. The graph of 3x 2 5 y + 4 z 2 = 0 is __E__.
(Think: x 2 y + z 2 = 0 , or y = x 2 + z 2 .) II. The graph of 4 z 2
(Think: z 2 x2 5 y 2 = 2 is __C__. y 2 = 1 , or z 2 = x 2 + y 2 + 1 .) x2 III. The graph of x 2 = y 2 + 22
z is __D__.
5 (Think: x 2 = y 2 + z 2 .) IV. The graph of y = 2 x 2
(Think: y = x 2 3z 2 is __F__. z 2 .) Below are graphs of I, II, and III. IV will show up later! (Courtesy Mathematica.) 3x 2 5 y + 4 z 2 = 0 An Elliptic Paraboloid 4z 2 x2 5y2 = 2 A Hyperboloid of Two Sheets 22
z
5
A Cone x2 = y2 + 12) Consider the graph of y = 2 x 2 3z 2 . This was in Problem 11, part IV.
Assume that k takes the place of real constants. (9 points total)
The graph is a hyperbolic paraboloid. For simplicity, consider: y = x 2
The conic traces of the graph in the planes y = k are hyperbolas.
The conic traces in the planes x = k and z = k are parabolas. z2 . a) The conic traces of the graph in the planes x = k are … (Box in one:)
Ellipses Hyperbolas Parabolas Let k be a real number. The trace of the graph of y = x 2
x = k is given by:
y = k2 z 2 in the plane z2, x = k y = z2 + k 2, x = k We obtain parabolas. b) The conic traces of the graph in the planes y = k are … (Box in one:)
Ellipses Hyperbolas Parabolas Let k be a real number. The trace of the graph of y = x 2
y = k is given by:
k = x2 z 2 in the plane z2, y = k z2 = k, y = k x2 0 and a pair of intersecting lines for k = 0 . We obtain hyperbolas for k c) The conic traces of the graph in the planes z = k are … (Box in one:)
Ellipses Hyperbolas Parabolas Let k be a real number. The trace of the graph of y = x 2
z = k is given by:
y = x2 We obtain parabolas. k2, z = k z 2 in the plane Here are graphs of y = x 2 13) z 2 , a hyperbolic paraboloid: Find an equation (in x, y, and z) of the surface obtained by revolving the
graph of 16 x 2 9 z 2 = 1 (in the xzplane) about the zaxis. (3 points)
Since x is the “nonaxis” variable in the equation above, and y is the “missing
variable” … ( ) We replace x 2 with x 2 + y 2 . We don’t “touch z,” the “axis variable.” ( ) 9z 2 = 1 16 x 2 + 16 y 2 9z 2 = 1 16 x 2 + y 2 We are taking a hyperbola (in blue below) that opens along the xaxis in the xzplane (see left figure below), and we are using it to generate a hyperboloid of one
sheet with the zaxis as its axis (see right figure below). ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2011 for the course MATH 252 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Mesa CC.
 Spring '11
 staff
 Math, Calculus, Vectors

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