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Chap10 - Dr Saidane Chem 200 Lecture Notes Chapter 10 Gases...

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Chem. 200 Dr. Saidane Lecture Notes Chapter 10 Gases A gas is a fluid state of matter that fills the container it occupies and can be easily compressed. There are 11 elements that are gas under normal conditions. They all lie toward the upper right of the periodic table. Because gases expand quickly to fill their container, they do not interact strongly. Gases are highly compressible which suggests that there is a lot of empty space between the molecules. Gases fill rapidly their container, which suggests that the molecules are moving very rapidly. MOLECULAR CHARACTER OF GASES The Ideal Gas The properties of a gas indicate that molecular volumes and molecular forces (interactions) are small. When they are negligibly small, each molecule is completely independent of every other molecule, and the gas is said to be ideal. An ideal gas is defined as: A gas which both the volume of molecules and the forces between the molecules are so small that they have no effect on the behavior of the gas . Pressure The pressure of a gas arises from the collisions that its molecules make with the walls of the container. The storm of collisions exerts an almost steady force on the walls. The pressure of a gas is the force of collision a gas exerts divided by the area subjected to the force. P = F/S. The units for reporting pressure are Torr and atmospheres (1 atm = 760 Torr). The SI unit is Pascal (1 Pa = 1 kg/m.s 2 ).
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A barometer is used to measure the pressure of the atmosphere. At sea level, the pressure of the atmosphere is close to 1 atm. THE GAS LAWS The properties of gases were studied and resulted in several gas laws. Boyle’s Law Boyle observed that when he compressed a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature, the pressure of the gas increased. When the volume of a gas is decreased, there are more molecules in a given volume, so there are collisions with the walls. Because the impact on the walls increases, so does the pressure. The implication of this result is that for a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature, pressure is inversely proportional to volume . P 1 / V or P = constant / V .
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